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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Bulletin 73 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE BEAKED WHALES OF THE FAMILY 
ZIPHHD^ IN THE COLLECTION OF THE UNITED 
STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM, WITH RE- 
MARKS ON SOME SPECIMENS IN 
OTHER AMERICAN MUSEUMS 



BY 

FREDERICK W. TRUE 
Head Curator, Department vf Biology, U. S. National iVuseum 



per\ 






WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1910 



BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Issued September 28, 1910. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The scientific publications of ihc United States National Museum consist of 
two series, the Proceedings and the Bulletins. 

The Proceedings, the first volume of which was issued in 1878, are intended 
primarily as a medium for the publication of original, and usually brief, papers 
based on the collections of the National Museum, presenting newly-acquired facts 
in zoology, geology, and anthropology, including descriptions of new forms of 
animals, and revisions of limited groups. One or two volumes are issued annually 
and distributed to libraries and scientific organizations. A limited number of 
copies of each paper, in pamphlet form, is distributed to specialists and others 
interested in the different subjects as soon as printed. The date of publication is 
printed on each paper, and these dates are also recorded in the tables of contents 
of the volume. 

The Bulletins, the first of which was issued in 1875, consist of a series of sepa- 
rate pubhcations comprising chiefly monographs of large zoological groups and other 
general systematic treatises (occasionally in several volumes), faunal works, reports 
of expeditions, and catalogues of type-specimens, special collections, etc. The 
majority of the volumes are octavos, but a quarto size has been adopted in a few 
instances in which large plates were regarded as indispensable. 

Since 1902 a series of octavo volumes containing papers relating to the botanical 
collections of the Museum, and known as the Contributions from the National Her- 
barium, has been published as bulletins. 

The present work forms No. 73 of the Bulletin series. 

RiCHAED RaTHBUN, 

Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, 
In charge of the United States National Museum. 
Washington, D. C, June 1, 1910. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 1 

Descriptions of skulls and skeletons of Ziphioid whales 3 

Genus Mesoplodon 3 

Mesoplodon bidens 4 

densirostris 9 

europasus 11 

stejnegeri 24 

Genus Ziphius 30 

Ziphius cavirostris 30 

Genus Berardius 60 

Berardius bairdii 60 

Genus Hyperoodon 76 

Hyperoodon ampullatus 76 

List of species of existing Ziphioid whales 76 

Index 79 

Explanation of plates 83 

V 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE BEAKED WHALES OF THE FAMILY ZIPHIID Jl 
IN THE COLLECTION OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL 
MUSEUM, WITH REMARKS ON SOME SPECIMENS IN OTHER 
AMERICAN MUSEUMS. 

By Frederick W. True, 

Head Curator, Department of Biology, U. S. National Museum. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The beaked whales belonging to the family Ziphiidae are, with the exception 
of the bottle-nosed whales of the genus Hyperoodon, among the rarest of cetaceans. 
Of the three genera Mesoplodori, Ziphius, and Berardius, so far as I have been able 
to ascertain from published records, specimens representuag about one hundred 
individuals are known, and somewhat more than one-half of these belong to the 
first-named genus. Berardius is the rarest genus, only about fourteen specimens • 
havmg been collected thus far. The U. S. National Museum contains specimens 
representing some twenty-five individuals of the three genera, or about one-fourth 
of the material at present available. Among these are six specimens of the genua 
Berardius, or nearly half of all that have been recorded thus far. 

The most important addition to the knowledge of these whales made during 
the last quarter century was the discovery of representatives of the three genera 
Mesophdon, Ziphius, and Berardius, at Bering Island, m the North Pacific, by Dr. 
Leonhard Stejneger, whereby the Imown range of the family was very greatly 
extended. Two of the forms were described by Doctor Stejneger in 1883, and the 
third by myself from a skull which he collected. About one-half of the material 
which the Museum possesses consists of that collected by Doctor Stejneger in Bering 
Island and that from the same locality presented by Mr. Nicholas Grebnitzki, Rus- 
sian governor of the Commander Islands. 

About six years ago the National Museum received information and specimens 
from correspondents showing that the range of the three genera found at Bering 
Island extends to the eastern North Pacific, one genus {Ziphius) havmg been 
observed at Kiska Harbor, Alaska, another { Mesophdon) at Yaquina Bay, Oregon, 
and the third {Berardius) at St. George Island, Pribilof Group, Alaska, and near 
Cape Mendocino, CaUfornia. 



2 BULLETI>; rj, U^'ITEU STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

On the east and west coasts of the United States the only occurrences of beaked 
whales known to nie are as follows: 

EAST COAST OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Mesoplodon bidens: 

Nantucket Island, Miissacliunetts. 1867. Skull in the Muf-eum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 
bridge, MaRsacluiaetta. 

Mesoplodon europseus: 

Atlantic City, New Jersey. March 28, 1889. Young male. Skeleton, cast, photographs, and 

viscera in the National Museum. 
North Long Branch, New Jersey. July 22, 1905. Adult female. Skull in the Museum of 

Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Mesoplodon densirostrisf: 

Annisquam, Massachusetts. August, 1898. Young female. Skeleton in the Museum of the 

Boston Society of Natural History. 
Ziphius cavirostrii: 

Charleston, South Carolina. 186.5 (?). Young female. Skeleton in the National Museum. 

(Typo of Z. semijunctus.) 
Barnegat City, New Jersey. October 3, 1883. Adult female. Skeleton and cast in the 

National Museum. 
St. Simon Island, Cieorgia. 1893. Male (?). Known from a photograph; only a few bones 

preserved. 
Newport, Rhode Island. October, 1901. Adult male. Skeleton and photograph in the 

National Museum. 
Hyperoodon a mpulla t us: 

New York Bay, New York. 1822. Female (?). Not known to have been preserved. 

North Dennis, Massachusetts. January, 1869. Male. Skeleton in the Museum of Compara- 

ti\o Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Newport, Rhode Island. 1869. Female. Skull in Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 

Philadelphia. 

WEST COAST OF THE CNITED STATES. 

Mesoplodon slcjnegeri: 

Yaquina Bay, near Newport, Oregon. February 15 (?), 1904. Adult. Skull in the National 

Museum. 
Ziphius caiimntrin: 

Kiska Harbor, Alaska. September, 1904. Known only from photographs. 
Berardius bairdii: 

St. George Island, Bribilof Group, Alaska. June, 1903. Adult female. Skeleton in the 

National Museum. 
St. George Island, Pribilof Grouj), Alaska. June, 1903. Young male. Skeleton in the 

National Museum. 
Centerville Beach, near Femdale, California. October, 1904. Adult male. Skeleton in the 

National Museum. 
Alaska or California (?). Skull formerly in museum of the Alaska Commercial Company, San 

Francisco. 
Trinidad, California. January 30, 1905. Not preserved; perhaps not this genus. 
St.GeorgeIsland,Pribilof Group, Alaska. August 21, 1909. Female. Probably not preserved. 

Reported by Maj. Ezra W. Clark. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TKUE. 3 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SKULLS AND SKELETONS OF ZIPHIOID WHALES. 
Genus MESOPLODON Gervais. 

Of this genus the National Museum has four specimens; namely, (1) a skull 
(Cat. No. 21112, U.S.N.M.) obtained at Bering Island, North Pacific Ocean, in 1883, 
by Dr. L. Stejneger, and made the type of the species M. stepiegeri True; (2) a 
skull and photographs (Cat. No. 143132, U.S.N.M.) of the same species, from 
Yaquina Bay, Oregon, obtained in exchange from Mr. J. G. Crawford in 1904; 
(3) a skeleton, cast, and photographs of a young male (Cat. No. 23346, U.S.N.M.) [ 
hitherto supposed to represent M. Indens, caught at Atlantic City, New Jersey, in 
1889; and (4) a skeleton of an adult (Cat. No. 49880, U.S.N.M.) from the Chatham 
Islands, New Zealand, representing M. grnyi." 

In addition to this material, I have had the privilege of examining two skulls 
belonging to the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and hitherto supposed to rep- 
resent M. Udens, and two skeletons belonging to the American Museum of Natural 
History. Of these last, one is that of an adult and was purchased by the American 
Museum under the name of M. layardi, but was subsequently recognized to be a 
new species and was described by Mr. Andrews, under the name of Mesoplodon 
bowdoini. The other is that of a young individual, and has been labeled M. grayi. 

As already noted by Dr. G. M. Allen," only four specimens of Mesoplodon have 
been recorded hitherto from the Atlantic coast of the United States. These are: 

1. Aji adult, sex unknown, Init probably female, 16 feet long, found at Nan- 
tucket, Massachusetts, in 1867, and recorded by Prof. L. Agassiz.-^ The skull of 
this individual is in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

2. A young male, 12^ feet long, captured at Atlantic Citv, New Jersey, March 
28, 1889. The skeleton (Cat. No. 23346, U.S.N.M.) is in the'National Museum. 

3. A young female, 12 feet 2 inches long, stranded at Annisquam, Massachusetts, 
August, 1898, and recorded by the late Alpheus Hyatt.'^ The skeleton is in the 
museum of the Boston Society of Natural History. 

4. An adult female, said by fishermen who measured it to have been 22 feet 
long, entangled in pound nets at North Long Branch, New Jersey, July 22, 190.5, 
and recorded by Dr. Glover M. Allen. « The cranium of this individual is preserved 
in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. The rostrum and mandible, which were 
originally obtained, were afterwards destroyed by accident. 

I have examined all this material. Writers who have had occasion to mention 
these four specimens thus far have referred them tacitly to Mesoplodon Udens 
(Sowerby), but, after a careful study of them, I have ascertained that while the 
Nantucket specimen belongs to that species, the Atlantic City ami Long Branch 

o As this species is well known, the skeleton is not described in this paper. 

6Amer. Nat., voL 40, 1906, p. 366. 

cProc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, 1S66-68, p. 318. 

d Idem, vol. 29, 1899. p. 9. 

«Amer. Nat. vol. 40, 1906, p. 357. 



4 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

specimens represent Mesoplodon europxus (Gervais). This is a very interesting dis- 
covery because the latter species has been known hitherto only from a single skul 
and its validity has been frequently questioned. The Annisqiyim specimen, as will 
be seen later, presents characters which appear to ally it to M. densirostns. 



MESOPLODON BIDENS (Sowerby). 

Physeter bidens Sowerby, British Miscell., 1804, p. 1; Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 7, 1804, 

p. 310. 
Delphinus sowerbenm Blainvii.le, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 2d ed.. vol. 9, 181,, p. 177. 
Delphinus sowerbyi Desmarest, Mammalogie, pt. 2, 1822, p. 521. 

The only specimen from the Atlantic coast of the United States which can 
with certainty be referred to this species is the one from Nantucket mentioned on 
page 3. Prof. L. Agassiz's original notice of it is so brief that it is quoted in full 
below : 

Professor Agassiz also brought to the notice of the Society the discovery of a Cetacean, new to 
America. The skull was exhibited, and its peculiar features pointed out. It was obtained on the 
coast of Nantucket by Messrs. H. M. and S. C. Martin, of Roxbury. It belonged to thegenus ifesoplodon, 
as characterized by Gervais, and ought to be separated from the fossil Ziphius, described by Cuvier. 
Professor Aga-s-^^iz, "however, questioned whether Mesoplodon was not identical with Delphinorhynchus, 
previously described by Dc Blainville. The specimen found at Nantucket measured 16 feet in length.* 



SKULL. 



The skull of this Nantucket specimen, which I have before me, is thoroughly 
adult. That the specimen is a female is probable from the fact that the teeth (one 
of which is preserved), though fully developed, are only two-thirds as broad and 
three-fourths as long as those of Sowerby's specimen (the type of the species), 
which was an adult male.* The skull is 765 mm. long, and about .30 mm. are lack- 
ing from the end of the beak, so that the original length was about 795 mm. It 
appears to be, therefore, rather the largest skull of the species of which there is any 
record. The specimen itself, according to Dr. J. A. Allen, was 16 feet 3 inches 
long. ' The largest European skull appears to be the one in the Edinburgh Museum, 
described by Sir William Turner in lcS72.'i The length of this is 749 mm. The 
specimen was a female, but tliough the skull is so large, the mesirostral cartilage was 
not ossified, and the individual was, therefore, probably not thoroughly adult. 
Two other European specimens, of which the total length was almost identical 
Avith that of the Nantucket specimen, were (1) the adult female obtained at Over- 
strand, England, in 1892, and recorded In^ Southwell and Maimer "^ (length 16 feet 

oProc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. II, 1866-68, p. 318. 

b One of the teeth of Sowerby's specimen is figured by Lankester in Trans. Roy. Micr. Soc, new 
ser., vol. 15, 1867, pi. 5, figs. 1, 2. 

cBuU. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 1, 1869, p. 205. 

d Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 26, 1872, p. 771. 

'Zoologist, ser. 3, vol. 17, Feb., 1893, p. 42; Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 11, 1893, p. 275. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIIDJi: — TRUE. 5 

2 inches, straight) ; (2) the adult male obtained at Brodie House, Scotland, in 
1800, and recorded bySowerby" (length 16 feet). The length of the skull is not 
given for either of these specimens. The adult male obtained at Rugsund, Norway, 
in 1901, and recorded by Grieg,* was only 15 feet 1 inch long, but some of the 
measurements of the skull are as large as, or even a little larger than, those of the 
Nantucket skull. The total length of the skull was not given, as the end of the 
beak was lacking. 

Grieg's figures of the Rugsund skull afford a very satisfactory basis for com- 
parisons between that specimen and the Nantucket skull (PI. 1, fig. 1). Both 
skulls show the comparatively narrow frontal region, the moderately developed 
tubercle anterior to the anteorbital notch, and the low maxillar}' ridge, which are 
characteristic of the species. In both skulls the anterior prolongation of the eth- 
moid is lanceolate and flat, but in the Rugsund skull the apex is truncated. In 
the latter also the posterior end of the mesirostral ossification is divided into three 
longitudinal sections by two lateral and somewhat divergent grooves, while in the 
Nantucket skull there is only a single median groove. These differences may safely 
be regarded as individual. Toward the distal end the surface of the ossification in 
the Nantucket is pitted and irregular and descends much below the level of the 
premaxillfe. It ends distally at the same point with the vomer. In this skull the 
proximal end of the premaxilla? and adjoining plate of the maxillae are somewhat 
less reflexed than in the Rugsund skull. The shape of the supei-ior margin of the 
supraoccipital is alike in both. 

There are no well-defined dift'erences in the relative thickness of the beak at the 
base or in the form and position of the visible portion of the palatines, but in the 
Nantucket skull the mass of the combined frontal and lachrymal anterior to the 
orbit is less I'ounded and more triangular than in the Rugsund skull. The temporal 
fossae also have a postero-superior angular enlargement not seen in the latter. 

In the Nantucket skull the rostral portion of the premaxillse is high and at the 
distal end vertical. The supei-ior profile is somewhat convex, and the superior free 
margin rounded proximally, but sharp distally. The least distance between the 
free margins is 10 mm. 

The pterygoids are cut oft' from the maxillae anteriorly by a very narrow band 
of the palatine, which connects with a broad band externally and a lanceolate seg- 
ment internally. The inferior pterj^goid ridges diverge anteriorly. The broad sur- 
face internal to them is concave. The external border of the pterygoid sinus is 
nearly straight. An elongated, fusiform section of tiie vomer is visible on the infe- 
rior surface of the beak at the middle for a distance of 158 mm., and a small lozenge- 
shape section, ill defined, is visible between the pterygoids and palatines. (PI. 4. 

fig-1.) 

The expanded anterior end of the malar is rhomboidal in form, with an external 
free margin 11 mm. long. Anteriorly it does not form part of the margin of the 
anteorbital notch. 

o Trans. Linn. Soc. London, voL 7, 1804, p. 310. 
l> Bergens Mus. Aarb., 1904, no. 3. 



6 BULLETI>- rS. UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The lachrymal is irregularly oblong, with an external free margin 35 mm. long 
and 12 mm. tliick. The distance from the anteorbital notch to the anterior end of 
the orbit is 60 mm. (PI. 7, fig. 1.) 

The lateral free margins of the basioccipital are extended posteriorly beyond 
the exoccipitals, which is a character indicative of age. 

The svipraoccipital has a distinct median ridge, with a longitudinal depression 
on each side, bounded externally by a proniinent convexity. (PI. 10, fig. 1.) 

MANDIBLE. 

The mandible is slender, with a very elongate symphysis, which measures 237 
mm. The inferior outline of the ramus is strongly concave at the middle and 
slightly convex posteriorly, while the symphysial portion is bent upward. The 
superior outline is concave both behind and before the tooth, and also immediately 
anterior to the coronoid process. At about the beginning of the posterior fourth 
the outline is convex, and the mandible at this point is nearly as deep as at the 
coronoid process. The superior surface of the symphysis slopes down on each side 
to the median line, but each half of the surface is itself nearly plane. (PI. 11, figs. 
1, 2, and 5.) 

The alveolar groove anterior to the tooth is very distinct throughout and is 
without septa and open at the bottom. It ends distally in a rounded aperture 
6 mm. in diameter, below which are several small foramina. These lead to a very 
large canal which occupies all the symphysial portion of the mandible, the walls 
being comparatively thin. Behind the tooth the alveolar groove becomes nar- 
rower gradually and disappears in a length of about 140 mm. 

Tlie mental foramen is situated in line with the anterior base of the tooth, and 
is confluent with a groove which extends forward for about 80 mm. A rather 
shallow groove runs along the inferior margin of the symphysis. 

The coronoid process is erect and rounded, and is joined by a horizontal ridge 
anteriorly. 

TEETH. 

The mandibular tooth, which is shown in PI. 2, fig. 3, is preserved on the right 
side only. Its dimensions are as follows: Length anteriorly in a straight line, 75 
mm.; length from the apex to the posterior end of the root, straight, 60; greatest 
antero-posterior breadth, 28; transverse thickness, 10; height of apex above 
internal superior margin of jaw when tooth is in situ," 22; antero-posterior length 
of base of exposed portion, 30; distance from anterior end to posterior end of root, 
37; greatest height of the exposed dentine crown, above the cement, 14; length 
of the base of the dentine crown, 12. 

This tooth, as already stated, is only two-thirds as broad and three-fourths 
as long as that of Sowerby's Brodie House specimen (the type of the species), 
which was an adult male, and leads to the belief that the Nantucket specimen was 
a female. This is in a manner confirmed by the Rugsund specimen, which was an 
adult male and had teeth as large as Sowerby's specimen. It has to be remarked, 

« The external margin is broken at this point. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ — TRUE. 7 

however, that in the Overstiand, Enghmd, specimen (1S92), which was an adult 
female, the teeth did not project beyond the gums. Messrs. Southwell and Ilarmer 
say regarding it : 

The jaws were apparently completely edentulous, and although it was possible to feci through the 
gums a slight prominence on either .side in the position of the teeth of the male, we could not by this 
means definitely satisfy ourselves with respect to this point, nor were we able to ascertain the presence 
of any other rudimentary teeth in either jaw. The evidence which exists on this subject is favourable 
to the \iew that the female of this species is not provided with any teeth which are large enough to 
pierce the gums." 

It is probable that the teeth in tlie Xantiuket specimen, though (luite large, 
did not project beyond the gums any considerable distance. The external border 
of the alveolar groove behind the tooth is only 20 mm. below the apex of the tooth, 
and it is not unlikely that the gums in a specimen of this size had nearly that tluck- 
ness, so that only the tip of the tooth would project beyond them. Though the 
apex is acute, it has a flat abraded surface anteriorly, which, however, is but 4 mm. 
long. It seems probable, on the whole, that the teeth in the female may be quite 
large without projecting more than a few millimeters beyond the gums. 

In shape the tooth of the Nantucket specimen is almost identical with that of 
Sowerby's Brodie House adult male, as figured by Lankester. The dentine at the 
apex is more nearly white than the cement which surrounds it. The superior 
margin of the latter is not a plain ring, but sends upward a papilliform projection 
on each side. The dentine itself has two vertical grooves on each side. The root 
of the tooth ends very obliquely and is rugose and irregular. The cavity is closed. 

Grieg remarks as follows regarding the structure of the teeth of the Rugsund 
specimen: 

Sections and microscopic preparations of the alveolar tooth of this whale show that its apex consists 
of dentine, within which is found an inner pulp cavity 4 mm. long and 1 mm. broad. The dentine, 
the structure of which agrees with that which Turner found in Mesoplodon bidens and Mesoplodon layardi, 
is yellowish white, with the exception of the part nearest the pulp cavity, which is yellowish brown. It 
seems to correspond most closely to what Ray Lankester called osteodentine. Throughout the tooth the 
dentrine is covered with a very thin layer of shining white enamel. The enamel is. however, lacking on 
the front of the tooth, having probably been worn away. A section through the middle of the tooth, at 
right angles with the V-shaped furrow, shows a yellowish cement layer from 3 to 5 mm. broad, which is, 
however, worn away on the front of the tooth. Within the cement layer is a white, amorphous, calcareous 
mass, forming a band from L.5 to 3. -5 mm. broad, which appears to correspond to Ray Lankest^r's "glob- 
ular matter" and Turner's "modified vasodentine." The mass seems to agree most closely with Ray 
Lankester's "globular matter," as it has "no structure excepting an indistinct botryoidal character visi- 
ble with a low magnifying power." The core of the tooth consists of dentine, the inner layer of which 
is brownish, while the outer is rather whitish yellow. As above mentioned, the dentine is visible on 
the front of the tooth, since both the cement and the amorphous, calcareous mass are w^orn away. More- 
over, it is clear that on the front of the tooth the dentine is not covered by enamel. The pulp cavity is 
reduced to a fine pore. A section across the root of the tooth shows an outer yellowish cement layer, 
from 2 to 5 mm. broad, while the interior of the tooth is filled with a white, amorphous, calcareous mass, 
which is interspersed with thin yellowish lamellae of dentine. Here and there, also, thin lamellje are 
seen to extend from the outer cement layer into the white, amorphous, calcareous mass. The dentine 
lamellse appear to be identical with what Ray Lankester calls osteodentine. No pulp cavity is visible 
in the root of the tooth.* 

o Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 11, 1893, p. 277. 
ftBergena Mus. Aarb., 1904, No. 3, pp. 27,28. 



8 



BULLETIN "3, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



The dimensions of the Nantucket skull are given in the following table in 
comparison with those of seven European skulls of M. bidens. Dimensions of the 
Annisquam, Massachusetts, skull are also added for purposes of comparison, although 
it represents another species (see p. 9). 

Dimensions of eight skulls of Mesoplodon bidens and one skull oj M. densirostris (?). 



Measurements. 



Totallength 

Length ot rostram 

Tip of beak to end of ptery- 
goid 

Height from vertex to ptery- 
goid 

Breadth between orbits 

Breadth between zygo- 
matic processes 

Breadth at maxillary 
notches 

Breadth ol beak at middle... 

Depth of beak at middle 

Greatest breadth of pre- 
maxilltD proxinially 

Greatest breadth ol pre- 
maxilla3 in front of ante- 
riornares 

Greatest breadth of anterior 
nares 

Length ot temporal fossae 

Breadth between temporal 
fOSSiE 

Breadthofforamen magnum. 

Length of mandible 

Length of symphysis 

Greatest depth of mandible. . 



Nan- 
tucket 
Massa- 
chu- 
setts, 

imr, 

M.C.Z. 
female ? 
adult, o 



mm. 
l>7(i5-(- 
6 483+ 

M607+ 

277 
e277 



184 
42 
35 



54 
90 

222 

50 

C651 

237 

106 



Scot- 
land. 
1872, 

Turner 
female 

young.? 



mm. 
749 



572 



241 

286 



292 



197 
51 



tl 470 
241 

114 



Fa;o. 
Nor- 
way, 
1895. 
Grieg 
female? 
young. 



mm. 
620 
400 



/254 

262 

170 

38 

»31 

115 

''104 
53 



843 

162 
92 



Shet- 
land, 
1881. 

Turner, 
male 

adult. 



ram. 
743± 



254 
267 



292 
184 



Rug- 

sund, 
Nor- 
way. 
1901. 

Grieg, 
male 

adult. 



267 
292 



295 
193 



Udslre 
Nor- 
way, 
1869, 

Malm, 
male 

(No.l). 



mm. 
733 
485 



272 

293 



298 



187 
36 



116 129 



108 
53 



49 



116 



108 
50 



56 
639 
212 

no 



Vanhol- 
men, 

Sweden, 
1881, 

Malm, 
male 

(No. 2). 



mm. 
740 
500 



258 
253 



270 



170 
46 



124 

100 
60 



54 
640 
220 



Lande- 
na;s, 
Nor- 
way, 
1895, 
Grieg, 
male. 



mm. 
660 
410 



235 
/260 

268 

175 
40 
A 33 

122 



'176 



50 
"66 



560 
160 
95 



M. den- 
siros- 
tris (?). 



o The size of the teeth makes it quite certain that it is an adult female. 

t End of beak broken off about 30 mm. from tip. 

c Right side. -Vdd 31 mm. for breakage. 

<* In median line. 

« At middle. 

/Between "suprafrontal processes of max." 

s Grieg's fig., p. is, shows 44 mm. 

» From Grieg's fig., p. 18. 

< " Length of ramus." Length of mandible— 699 mm. 

'In Trans. Roy. Soc. Edhiburgh, vol. 26, 1872, p. 776. 



Annis- 
quam, 
Massa- 
chu- 
setts, 
1898, 
True, 
female 
young. 



mm. 
C622 
c377 

fd466 

248 
[278] 

266 

[166] 
38 
51 



39 
82 



208 
46 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIIDa: TRUE. 9 

MESOPLODON DENSIROSTRIS (Blainvillej ? 

Delphinus deimrostris Blainville, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 2d ed., vol. 9, 1817, p. 178. 
Ziphius seychelUnsis Gray, Zool. Erebus and Terror, 1846, p. 28. 

The skull of the specimen from Annisquam, Mass., (PI. 1, fig. 2) is, I regret 
to saj', in rather poor condition. It is broken in the left orbital region, and all 
the bones, especially those of the beak, are warped by weathering. The proximal 
extremity of the left premaxilla is lacking and also the tip of the beak. 

The skull is obviously that of a young animal, as all the sutures are open and 
the surface of the occipital condyles is pitted, owing to imperfect ossification. 

Although the dimensions of the skull, with a few exceptions, agree well with 
those of young specimens of M. hidens, as shown by the foregoing table (p. 8), 
certain differences stand out conspicuously. The most salient of these is the depth 
of the beak as a whole and the depth and shape of the rostral portion of the pre- 
maxilla?. The latter portion of the premaxillae instead of being low, with a straight 
inferior margin, is very high, with the inferior margin strongly convex. At the 
middle of the beak the premaxilhe are higher than the maxilla? on which they rest. 
It is true that the shape of the beak varies greatly with age in bidens and other 
species of Mesojdodon, but I do not find any evidence that such a change as is here 
indicated takes place in hidens. The form of the beak and of the rostral portion 
of the premaxUlae is that of M. densirostris. 

The beak is almost as broad at the base as in hidens, but the lateral free margin 
of the maxilla anterior to the anteorbital notch instead of continuing along the side 
of the beak nearly to the tip, as in bidens, ends at a point about 90 mm. in front 
of the fine of the notch, beyond which the sides of the beak are vertical. 

The margin of the maxilla immediately anterior to the anteorbital notch is a 
little damaged, but there was apparently no strong tubercle at this point, and the 
surface of the maxilla, though convex, is not raised into a distinct ridge. In a 
young skull, however, one would not expect to find a high ridge. The palatines 
are visible from above, which is not the case in bidens. 

The maxillary foramen is situated a little in advance of the premaxillary 
foramen and is directed forward, and, as Dr. Glover M. Allen has pointed out, 
connects with a broad groove which runs forward along the triangular, horizontal 
portion of the maxilla at the base of the beak. The maxillas are much broader 
behind the notch than in bidens, and the anterior end of the malar forms the bottom 
of the notch. The premaxilla? are noticeably constricted immediately in front of 
the premaxillary foramina, and the expanded portion just behind these foramina 
is nearly horizontal, with a low transverse ridge near the middle. The proximal 
end of the premaxilla? is nearly vertical. The anterior nares are noticeably small. 
The foramen magnum is large, with a trifoliate outline (PI. 10, fig. 2). The palate 
at the proximal end presents a median ridge with a narrow groove on each side. 
The palatines extend as a broad band much beyond the pterygoids anteriorly. 
The vomer is visible below for a space of 142 mm. near the end of the beak. A 
very small piece is also visible at the base of the beak, between the palatines and 



10 BULLETIN 73. UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ptery<roids. The inferior surface of the pterygoids is convex on the side adjoining 
the iiiteral free margin (PI. 4, fig. 2). 

This skull is peculiar in that there is no very distinct basirostral groove and that 
the basirostral ridge, as already stated, extends forward only about 90 mm. Below 
this ridge is a shallow broad groove which narrows rapidly forward and can be traced 
to the extremity of the beak, where, it broadens out somewhat (PI. 7, fig. 2). 

While this skull agnu-s in size and in many of its proportions with similar skulls 
of M. Udens, it differs from that species and agrees with M. densirostris in the breadth 
across the anteorbital region, in the depth of the beak and its shape at the base, in 
the shape of the premaxillae both distally and proximally, in the direction of the 
maxillary foramen, and the shape of the maxillary bone in front of the same, in the 
occupation of the base of the maxillary notch by the anterior end of the malar, in the 
absence of any distinct maxillary ridge above the notch, in the forward extension of 
the palatines, and in the shape of the foramen magnum. 

Flower states that there is a deep basirostral groove in M. densirostris," but 
neither the figure in Gervais' Zoologie et Paleontologie Franfaise.'' nor that in Van 
Bencden and Gervais' Osteographie des Cetaces,"^ shows such a groove. The con- 
formation of the base of the rostrum appears to be about the same as in the Annis- 
quam skull. 

In resrard to differences between this skull and those of M. densirostris it should 
be stated that in the latter the premaxillary foramina are situated farther apart, and 
that the maxillary foramina are situated considerably in advance of those of the 
premaxilhe instead of nearly in line with them. 

The Annisquam skull approaches M. euro-pxus in several characters, but these 
are such as europseus shares with densirostris. The principal ones are the breadth 
of the maxilla3 in front of the orbits, the presence of the malar in the base of the 
anteorbital notch, and the convexity of a part of the inferior surface of the pterygoids. 
Dr. Glover M. Allen has given an account of the exterior, skeleton, and teeth of 
this specimen, from which the following particulars are extracted :'' 

Regarding the Annisquam specimen no color notes were taken, but from a few small photographs 
in the possession of the Boston Society of Natural History, it appears evident that the ventral portion 
was of a lighter tint, and in one of the views a few oval whitish spots are seen on the side a trifle behind 
the middle portion of the body. Another view shows the conve.xit}- of the posterior margin of the flukes 
at the median point, as well as the prominent dorsal fin. The lower jaw protruded slightly beyond the 
upper. Measurements of this specimen, as noted by Professor Hyatt, are as follows: Total length, 12 
feet 2 inches; from anus to bight of flukes, 3 feet 4 to 6 inches; across flukes, 3 feet 1 inch; from tip of 
rostrum to angle of mouth, 1 foot lA inches. The gijlar furrows were noted as about 10 inches long and 
from J to i an inch deep. 

The teeth of the Annisquam specimen barely projected above the alveoli of the jaws and are sharply 
mucronate. The basal portion of each, however, is more like that of the male's tooth [J/. europ!eus] 
in the slightly conve.\ posterior outline and the forward extension of the anterior angle. * * * 

The Annisquam skeleton ha-s 4a vertebrse. Four of the seven cervicals are fused. The atlas, axis, 
and third cervical are firmly anchylosed throughout, save for the lateral foramina for the passage of the 

a Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 10, 1878, p. 418. 

b Second ed., plate 40, fig. 4. 

c Plate 25, fig. 2. 

dAmer. Nat., vol. 40, 189G, pp. 3G3-370, fig. 3 (tooth, nat. size); fig. 4 (sternum). 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TRUE. 11 

cervical nerves. The fourth cervical is fused to the third by the dorsal spine on the left side and by the 
tip of the upper lateral process of the same side. Its centrum, right half of the dorsal spine (the spine 
is divided medially), and the remaining lateral processes are free. * * * The epiphyses of the fourth 
and fifth cervical vertebra; and the anterior epiphysis of the sixth cervical are fused to their respective 
centra, but all the other epiphyses of the vertebral column and of the pectoral limbs are free. 

The Annisquam skeleton has nine dorsal vertebra with their corresponding pairs of ribs. * * * 
The sternum of this specimen presents few points of interest. It consists of four pieces, the anterior- 
most of which is largest, slightly hollowed above, and correspondingly convex below. The three 
remaining pieces are nearly flat, with a deep median notch at the anterior and posterior border of each. 
The posterior piece evidently represents a fusion of the elements of two segments, as there are articular 
surfaces for two pairs of ribs. 

From the foregoing, it appears that the iViinisqiiam specimen probably had one 
or two vertebrae less than bidens or europseus, and that the sternum was somewhat 
differently shaped. The tooth, which is figured by Doctor Allen, is conical, com- 
pressed, 54 mm. long, 30 broad at the base, and resembles teeth of immature bidens. 

Although with such scant material it is not possible to determine ^tisfactorily 
the identity of this third species of Mesoflodon in the North Atlantic, repre.sented 
by the Annisquam specimen, I feel convinced that that specimen does not belong 
to M. bidens and that there is a strong probability that it belongs to M. densirostris. 
It is true that the latter species has been found hitherto only in the Indian Ocean 
and about Australia, but we know so little about the distribution of the ziphioid 
whales that, in my opinion, that circumstance by itself should not be given very 
great weight. 



MESOFLODON EUROP/EUS (Gervais). 

Dioplodon europseus Gervais, Zool. et Pal. franc., 1st ed., vol. 2, 1848-1852, p. 4; 2d ed., 1858, 

p. 289, pi. 40, figs. 3-6. 
Dioplodon gervaisi Deslongchamps, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, vol. 10, 1866, p. 177. 
Neoziphius europseus Gray, Suppl. Cat. Seals and '^Tiales Brit. Mus., 1871, p. 101. 

This species was based on a single specimen found floating in the English 
Channel about seventy years ago. An account of the circumstances under which 
it was found was given by Eugene Deslongchamps in 1866, as follows: 

The head, which forms the subject of this last note, was given to my father .some twenty-five or 
thirty years ago by Mr. Abel \'autier, a merchant and armorer of our town, who died at Paris two yeara 
since. 

The captain of one of Mr. Vautier's ships, on his return from a voyage to the colonies, saw floating 
on the water, at the entrance to the English Channel, the body of a large animal entirely covered by birds 
(large and small gulls, etc.), which were devouring it. The ship approached the stray, and the captain, 
knowing that Mr. Abel Vautier was greatly interested in natural objects, had the head of the cetacean cut 
off, fastened it securely with a cord, and let it trail behind the ship. Wlien he arrived at Caen he made 
a present of it to Mr. Vautier. The piece had at that time an appearance anything but agreeable. Mr. 
"Vautier was especially fond of beautiful objects which please the eye, and hence he offered it to my 
father, saying, "You, who are an anatomist, can make better use of this than I can." My father was 
unwilling to refuse the present, but neither he nor Mr. Vautier knew as yet of its extreme rarity. It is 
in fact, up to the present time, the only specimen which exists, and is a unique object in collections. o 

a Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, vol. 10, 1866, p. 177. 
24765— Bull. 73—10 2 



12 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

No additional specimens have been recorded from European waters or else- 
where, and much doubt has been thrown on the validitj^ of the species, many zoolo- 
gists rcgardincr it as an adult of the commoner species M. hidens. Van Beneden 
remarked in 18SS:» 

The opinions of naturalists are divided as regards the identity of this ziphioid, which is unique up 
to the present time. In the eyes of some it represents an old male of the common Mcsoplodon, in which 
the tooth, instead of developing near the middle of the jaw, has developed near the anterior extremity. 
This is the opinion of Doctor FLscher and others, who think that this unique specimen represents merely 
an indi\idual modification and that conse<iuently it should not figure in the list of species. We do not 
share this opinion. It is not impo.ssible that this ziphioid may belong to the other hemisphere, and this 
would explain why only one single individual has been captiu-ed in Europe." 

In view of the circumstances surrounding the discovery of the original specimen, 
it is of great interest to find that two of the specimens from the east coast of the 
United States represent the same species. As one of them is adult and the other 
young, the view that the tj-pe of M. europseus is merely an old individual of M. Udens 
is satisfactorily disposed of, as is also the opinion that it represents a singular 
individual variation. 

The two American specimens which represent europseus are those from North 
Long Branch, New Jersey (adult female; skull, lacking rostrum and mandible, in 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology), and from Atlantic City, New Jersey (j'oung 
male; skeleton, cast and photographs in the U. S. National Museum, Cat. No. 23346). 

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS. 

The species europseus differs from hidens in the fohowing characters, which may 
be regarded as diagnostic: 

Size larger and pectoral limbs relatively shorter and narrower. 

The expanded portion of the maxilla and frontals broader in front of the orbit. 
The protuberance which projects into the anteorbital notch much larger and the 
ridge on the maxilla which extends backward from it much higher. Distance from 
inner margin of maxillary foramen to tip of protuberance much more than one-half 
the distance between the maxillaiy foramina of the two sides. Rostrum deeper at 
the base. Inferior surface of pterygoids more or less convex, with a ridge (in adults) 
runnmg diagonally across it. 

The cranial characters above enumerated are found in the tj'^je-skull, as will 
be seen by examining the excellent figures in Van Beneden and Gervais' Osteography, 
plate 24. 

In Dr. Glover M. Allen's account of the Long Branch specimen* it is stated 
that the fishermen who measin-ed it reported that it was 22 feet long, while none of 
the European specimens (some of which were certainly adults) was more than 16 J 
feet long. That the measurement reported by the fishermen is at least approxi- 
mately correct appears from the fact that the skull is larger than that of any of the 
European specimens. The beak is missing, so that the total length of the skull can 
not be given, but the distance from the occipital condyles to the Ime of the maxillary 

a Bull. Acad. Roy. Belgique, vol. 41, 1888, p. 117. 
b Amer. Nat., vol. 40, 1906, p. 359. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TKUE. 13 

notches (straight) is 312 mm., while in the largest adult among the European speci- 
mens this distance is only 260 mm., and in the thoroughly adult Nantucket specimen 
282 mm. 

SKULL. 

The Atlantic City and Long Branch skulls also agree in numerous other details 
of structure in addition to the foregoing, the more important of which will now be 
mentioned. Unless otherwise stated, the type-skull, as shown by Van Beneden and 
Gervais' figures,*^ also presents the same peculiarities in contrast with M. bidens. 

Dorsal aspect (PI. 2, figs. 1 and 2). — The premaxillaj are more depressed imme- 
diately in front of the blowhole than in M. bidens, which, witii the prominence of 
the maxillary ridges, makes this whole region appear strongly concave. The blow- 
hole is narrower absolutely and also relatively to the breadth of the expanded 
proximal ends of the premaxillie, so that while in bidens the breadth of the blowhole 
is much more than one-tliird the breadth across tlie proxunal ends of the premaxill^, 
in europseus it is considerably less than a third. Both premaxillse are much con- 
stricted on the sides of the blowhole and the effect is heightened by the greater 
expansion of the proximal ends of the former. Tliese ends do not fit closely against 
the adjoining edge of the maxilliB as in bidens, but leave a transverse vacuity, or 
trough, which is especially noticeable in the type-skull. The anterior end of the 
malar bone occupies tlie bottom of the maxiUary notch and a small portion of it is 
visible from above, while in bidens it does not extend up into the notch at all from 
the inferior surface ami is not visible from above. The posterior margin of the 
maxillse is more squared in europieus tlian in bidens. 

The margins of the beak, formed by the maxillae, instead of being straight, are 
somewhat emarginate a little posterior to the middle of the length and somewhat 
convex anterior to it, which gives the contour of the beak, seen from above, a 
different shape from that of bidens. In the tyi)e-skull of europseus the mesirostral 
ossification appears to be higher at the proximal end than the premaxilhT, and 
distally extends to the end of the beak. In bidens it is lower than the premaxillje 
and, in the Nantucket skull at least, ends anteriorly at the same point as the vomer, 
or, in other words, much behind the end of the beak. It would appear from the 
statements of Sir William Turner, A'an Beneden and Gervais, Grieg, and others, 
that the mesirostral ossification never reaches the end of the beak in bidens, but it 
does in grayi, Tiaasti, densirostris, and many fossil sjDecies, as well as in europieus. 

Lateral aspect (PI. 8, figs. 1, 2). — The temporal fossaj are a httle longer than 
the orbit in europseus, but a little shorter than the orbit in bidens; in the former the 
superior margin is flat or a Httle concave, rather than convex. The exoccipital 
extends in an angle farther forward in europseus, and the suture between it and the 
zygomatic is, in consequence, less nearly vertical than in bidens. The premaxiUffi 
at the sides of the blowhole are nearly horizontal, so that their superior surface is 
little seen from this aspect, while in bidens they slope downward, so that tlie whole 
of the superior surface is visible. Tlie high maxillary ridge, situated behind the 
anteorbital notch, is very noticeable from this point of view, as it shuts off a 

o Ost6ographie, plate 24. 



14 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

considerable portion of the premaxillie. The convex inferior outline of the beak 
and its great depth at the base are also salient peculiarities. 

Ventral aspect (PL 5, figs. 1, 2).— The anterior ends of the palatine bones are 
bifurcated, the inner part being the smaller. The two bones make but a narrow 
angle with the median line, instead of a wide one, as in hidens, and the surface of the 
maxillae between them is strongly convex instead of flat. This convexity is narrowed 
at both ends, or, in other words, is fusiform in shape. No similar conformation is 
found in hidens, in which the inferior basal area of the maxillte is flat. 

In the young Atlantic City skull of europseus, the vomer is visible as a small, 
narrow, club-shaped piece, 68 mm. long. Anterioriy it joins the premaxillse, which 
form a prominent ridge in the median line. On each side of this ridge is a wide 
and quite deep groove. As the beak is lacking in the adult North Long Branch 
skull, its peculiarities can not be made known. In the type-skull the form is the 
same as in tl^ Atlantic City skull, but the vomer does not appear at all on the 
palate. In hidens the shape of the inferior surface of the premaxillie at the distal 
end is quite different. A very narrow groove runs parallel with and close to the 
median line and the whole surface external to it is more or less convex. 

MANDIBLE. 

The mandible of the Atlantic Citv specimen of M. europseus resembles that of 
the type, as figured by Van Beneden and Gervais, in the shortness of the symphysis 
and in the position of the tooth, which is in advance of the posterior end of the 
symphysis. A number of differences, however, require consideration. (PI. 11, 
figs. 3 and 6.) 

In the type, the symphysis, as shown by Van Beneden and Gervais' figure, 
plate 24, fig. 2a, is a little more than one-fifth the length of the mandible. The 
same relative proportion is found in the Atlantic City specimen, but, as the latter 
is a younger individual, one would expect the symphysis to be shorter. The figure 
of Van Beneden and Gervais gives the impression that in the type the end of the 
mandible is broken, and that, hence, the symphysis is shorter than it was originally. 
It win be observed that figures 2 and 2a do not agree as regards the length between 
the tooth and the end of the jaw, figure 2a shovsing a greater length. In figure 2, 
however, the jaw seems rather too long for the cranium, and if the greater length 
of the sj'mphysis shown in figure 2a were introduced, it would certainly be so. The 
explanation of this discrepancy is not readily foimd; but one may be allowed to 
think that the symphysis is not so blunt in the type as is shown in figure 2. 

In the Atlantic City specimen the superior lateral free margin of the symphysis 
is straight, while in the type it is much elevated. This is no doubt due to difl^er- 
ence in age and possibly in sex. The type shows three or four mental foramina, 
while the Atlantic City specimen has one large posterior one and seven smaller 
ones anterior to it. 

Another peculiarity of the latter specimen is that the coronoid process is 
situated much in advance of the condyle, while the angle extends considerably 
beliind it. In the type both are nearly in line with the condyle. I am unable to 
explain this difference. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TRUE. 



15 



In the Atlantic City specimen the axis of the tooth where it emerges from 
the alveohis is 91 mm. from the end of the jaw. The portion of the tooth above 
the alveohis is 11 mm. long at the base and 12 mm. high. It is conical and sharp 
pointed, and is inclined forward and a little outward, especially at the tip. At the 
alveolus the transverse breadth of the tooth is 5 mm. The much larger tooth 
in the type indicates that that specimen was a male. 

The mandible of the Atlantic City specimen of M. europieus differs from that 
of M. bidens in the relative shortness of the symphysis, the large number of mental 
foramina, the more anterior position of the tooth, and the direction of the crown, 
which is forward instead of backward. 

Dimensions of the type and tuo other skulls of iksoplodon eiiropxus. 



Measurements. 



Total length 

Length of rostram 

Tip of beak to posterior end of pterygoids. . . 

Height from vertex to end of pterygoids 

Breadth between orbits 

Breadth between zygomatic processes 

Breadth at anteorbita! notches 

Breadth of bealc at middle 

Depth of beak at middle 

Greatest breadth of premaxillas proximally. 

The same, in front of anterior nares 

Breadth of anterior nares 

Length of temporal fosste 

Breadth between temporal fossa; 

Breadth of foramen magnum 

Length of mandible 

Length of symphysis 

Greatest depth of mandible 



English 

Channel. 

type.a 

adult. 



ram. 
762 
4o9 
561 
c292? 
327 
300 
210 

66 

S4 
168 
111 

51 
102 
228 

42 
654 
135 
120 



North 
Long 
Branch, 
New Jer- 
sey, fe- 
male, 
adult. 



ram. 



2S3 
ii32S 
e325 

205 



147 
99 
45 
115 
212 
34 



Atlantic 

City, New 

Jersey. 

23346 

U.S.N.M., 

male, 

young. 



675 
427 
525 
25G 
■i287 
302 
/■182 

60 

40 
142 
104 

42 
101 
208 

34 
565 
116 
101 



a Dimensions taken from Van Beneden and Gervais' figures. 

' Beak lacking. Length from occipital condyles to base of beak (straight), 312 mm. 

c Pterygoids broken. 

liAt middle! 

'Estimated. One zygoma is broken. 

/ Least. 

VEftTEBR.^;. 

The vertebral formula of three specimens of M. hidens and of the Atlantic 
City specimen of M. europseus is as follows : 

if. europseus. 
Atlantic City C. 7; Th. 9; L. 11; Ca. 20=47 

M. bidens. 

Landenws '; l**; H; 19=*^ 

Fse0 7; 9; 11; 19=46 

Udsire 7; 10; 9; 20=46 



16 BULLETIN ti, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Although the skeleton of ^f. europxus appears from the foregoing formula to 
include one less thoracic vertebra than those of M. hidens, as the last pair of ribs 
present is as long as the preceding ones, an iidditional pair probably existed origi- 
nally. The formula for europxus would then be: C. 7, Th. 10, L. 10, Ca. 20 = 47. 
(Pl."l3,fig. 1.) 

In the Atlantic City specimen all the epiphyses are free. The atlas and axis 
are anchyloscd together, the tliird cervical is united to the axis by the centrum, 
and on the right side by the top of the neural arch; on the left side the arch is 
imperfect and free. The fourth to the seventh cervicals, inclusive, are all free. 
The arch is incomplete above in the fourth, fifth, and sixth, but complete in the 
seventh. There is a short neural spine on both sixth and seventh cervicals. The 
atlas has a broad, obliquely-truncated inferior lateral process, but no superior 
process, while the axis has both inferior and superior processes. The inferior 
process is tmce as long as tiie superior process, and both are directed backward. 
They do not meet to form a ring. The third to the .sixth cervicals. inclusive, 
have inferior processes only, that on the third being long and thin (but developed 
on the left side only). On the fourth and fifth cervicals the processes are short 
and small; on the sixtii, long and broad, and directed do\raward. The centrum 
of tiie seventh cervical has a broad facet on the side, where the first rib is attached, 
and an inferior lateral process thicker than that of the sixth cervical, but also 
directed downward. 

It is doubtful whether the foregoing characters of the cervical vertebrae are of 
any systematic importance, as there is a very large amount of individual variation 
among these animals in the development of the transverse processes and other 
details of structure. M. hidens, however, appears to have superior transverse 
processes on most of the cervicals which sometimes unite with the inferior proc- 
esses to form foramina. In the specimen of M. europseus under consideration there 
are no suj)erior processes, except on the axis. 

Metapophyses are first distinguishable on the diapophyses of the fourth thoracic 
vertebra, and on the seventh assume the form of conical tubercles. On the eighth 
and following vertebrae they are flat, and are last distinguishable on the seventh 
caudal vertebra. Facets for the articulation of the tubercles of the ribs occur on 
the diapophyses of the first to the seventh thoracic vertebriB. On the latter vertebra 
the first transverse process appears as a short projection on the side of the centrum. 
On the eighth thoracic vertebra, the transverse process is broad and flat, with the 
anterior margin bent upward, and is about 48 mm. long. The base of the neural 
arch is strongly concave externally. The transverse process of the ninth thoracic 
vertebra is similar to the preceding one, but broader and not bent upward anteriorly. 
The base of the neural arch is also concave in this vertebra. The ends of the trans- 
verse processes of the eighth and nhith vertebra; are emarginate for the articulation 
of the ribs. A median inferior ridge is first distinguishable on the seventh thoracic 
vertebra. 

As far as can be learned from the descriptions of Turner, Grieg, and others, 
the thoracic vertebrae of europxus do not present any marked differences from those 
of hidens. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIIDiE TEUE. 17 

The transverse processes of the himbar vertebrae are short, broad, and flat, and 
somewhat curved forward. They are expanded and rounded at the free ends. 
The centra increase in length posteriorly, the last lumbar having the greatest length 
of any vertebra in the column. The neural spines increase in length from the first 
lumbar to the fourth, those on the remaining lumbars being subequal, but the spine 
on the ninth himbar is a little longer than the others. Median inferior ridges occur 
on all the lumbars and are strongest at the middle of the series. The height of the 
centrum of the ninth lumbar is 63 mm., width 73, and length 116. The highest 
neural spine is 233. 

As above mentioned, the first of the vertebrae counted among the lumbars 
may be the last thoracic vertebra, but as there is no indication of an articular facet 
at the end of the transverse process it is not so considered in this place. 

The lumbar vertebrae in M. bidens appears to be more nearly equal in length 
than in the present species, but are not different otherwise. 

The spines of the caudal vertebrae decrease rapidly in height posteriorly, and 
disappear after the tenth caudal. The transverse processes resemble those of the 
lumbars, but are shorter. They are last distinguishable on the eighth caudal. The 
transverse process of the seventh caudal is perforated by a vertical foramen. Similar 
but much smaller foramina occur on the sides of the centra of the eighth and ninth 
caudals. In these vertebrae the inferior ridges are also pierced by foramina. In the 
fourth caudal a ridge appears on the side of the neural arch on a level with the top 
of the centrum, and similar ridges are found on the succeeding vertebrae as far as 
the ninth caudal. The last ten vertebrae are without processes or neural arches. 

Sir William Turner states that the caudals of M. hidens are without vertical 
foramina, but the figure in Van Beneden and Gervais' Osteography (plate 22) shows 
them in the same position as in M. europseus. The inferior ridges, however, appear 
to be imperforate in the former species. 

RIBS. 

The first seven pairs of ribs have both tubercle and head. The first is nearly 
as long as the second, and is very broad at the proximal end. In the seventh pair 
the head is double, one facet of the rib articulating with the facet on the posterior 
margin of the centrum of the sixth thoracic vertebra and the other with the short 
transverse process on the side of the centrum of the seventh thoracic vertebra. The 
eighth and ninth pairs of ribs articulate only with the transverse processes of the 
eighth and ninth thoracic vertebrae, respectively. The ninth pair of ribs, as already 
stated, is nearly or quite as long as the eighth, from which it seems probable that a 
tenth short pair was present originally. There is, however, no trace of a facet for 
the articulation of such a rib on the end of the transverse process of what appears 
to be the first lumbar vertebra. 

The only dift'erence between the ribs of M. europxus and those of M. hidens 
appears to be that the first pair is much longer proportionately in the former species. 



18 



BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



STERNUM. 

The sternum presents no diU'erences of importance from that of M. Indent 
figured by Grieg," except that the fourth and fifth segments are anchylosed together, 
both laterally and transversely, and that the two sides are symmetrical. (PI. 13, 
fig- 2.) 

PECTORAL LIMB. 

The scapula of M. europseus presents an entirely' different appearance from 
that of 21. bidens as figured in Van Beneden and Gervais' Osteography (plate 22). 
In europseus the scapula is very high anteriorly, the anterior border is convex forward 
and the anterior crest convex backward, bounding an elongated elliptical area. 
The posterior margin is straight. The acromion is short, with convex margins at 
the base, beyond which it narrows suddenly and terminates in a straight, cylindrical 
process, which is strongly inclined upward. The coracoid is as long as the acromion, 
nearly straight and horizontal, but expanded at the end. (PI. 13, figs. 3, 4.) 

The phalangeal formula of the Atlantic City specimen of if. europseus and those 
of three Norwegian specimens of J/, bidens are as follows (the metacarpals being 
included): 

Phalangeal formula of M. europnus and bidens. 



I '■ 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


v. 


M. euTopzus, Atlantic City: 

Left 


2 
2 

I 
1 
1 


6 

7 

6(0) 
6 
6 


6 
6 

5 
5 
6 


3+ 
4( + l') 

4 
4 
5 


3 + 
4 

3 
3 
4 


Right 


if. bidens: 

Landense.s 


Faeo 


Udsire 





In M. europseus the metacarpal of the third digit is much constricted in the 
middle. The shaft of the ulna is straight. Except in these particulars and the 
relatively small size of the whole pectoral limb, the latter appears not to differ 
materially from that of M. bidens. As shown above, the first digit in M. bidens 
consists of the metacarpal bone only, while in M. europseus a phalange is also present. 

Dimemions of the skeleton of the Atlantic City specimen of M. europxxis, No. 23346, U.S.N. M. 

mm. 

Length of the seven cervical vertebrae b 94 

Length of first, second, and third cervical vertebrae b 45 

Atlas: 

Greatest breadth ^50 

Greatest height jq3 

Height of neural canal 31; 

Greatest breadth across anterior articular facets 96 

Axis, greatest breadth J44 

" Bergens Mus. Aarb., 1904, No. 3, p. 32, fig. 12. 
b Placed in contact. 



BKAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ — TRUE. 19 

Seventh cervical vertebra: mm. 

Greatest breadth 80 

Greatest height without inferior process 117 

Greatest length of centrum 14 

Greatest height of neural canal 49 

First thoracic vertebra: 

Greatest height 151 

Greatest breadth 136 

Height of centrum 37 

Length of centrum 21 

Breadth of centrum (articular surface) 48 

Height of neiu-al spine 61 

Height of neural canal 53 

Seventh thoracic vertebra: 

Greatest height 246 

Greatest breadth 116 

Height of centrum 35 

Length of centrum 69 

Breadth of centrum 46 

Breadth between transverse processes 66 

Eighth thoracic vertebra: 

Greatest height 246 

Greatest breadth (between transverse processes) 142 

Height of centrum 39 

Length of centrum "3 

Breadth of centrum 47 

First lumbar vertebra: 

Greatest height 263 

Greatest breadth (between transverse processes') 215 

Height of centrum (anterior) 43 

Length of centrum ' 83 

Breadth of centrum 53 

First caudal vertebra: 

Greatest height 263 

Greatest breadth (between transverse processes) 207 

Height of centrum (anterior) 65 

Length of centrum 113 

Breadth of centrum 67 

Seventh caudal vertebra: 

Greatest height 153 

Greatest breadth 87 

Height of centrum (without hypapophysis) 66 

Length of centrum 84 

Breadth of centrum "0 

Length of last 10 caudal vertebrae 285 

Sternum : 

Total length 404 

Length of manubrium 165 

Greatest breadth of manubrium 134 

Depth of anterior notch of manubrium 37 

Scapula: 

Length 247 

Depth 161 



20 BULLETI^' 73, UNITED STATES NATIOM.U-, MUSEUM. 

Scapula — Continued. '«"'•• 

Length of acromion ° 44 

Length of coracoid 59 

Humerus, length 107 

Radius, length HO 

Ulna, length 100 

Pelvic bones, length 51 

HISTOKY OF THE ATLANTIC CITY SPECIMEK. 

Regarding the iinding of the Atlantic City specimen and its exterior and 
gross anatomy, notliing has been published except brief references by Sir William 
Turner in 18S9'' and Dr. Glover M. Allen in 1906, '^ taken from a newspaper report 
of a communication made by myself before the Biological Society of Washington 
in 1889. On that account a somewhat detailed statement regarding it will be 
made in this place. 

This individual (PI. 41, figs. 1, 2) was a male, 12i feet long. It was observed 
by the crew of life-saving station No. 28, near Atlantic City, New Jersey, on the after- 
noon of March 28, 1889. It had come inside the bar whi'ch skirts the coast at this 
point, and was apparently unable to find its way out. It was captured with some 
difficulty, after being womided in the throat, and was dragged up on the beach near 
the station. Tjator in the day it was carried to the skating rink of Messrs. Johnson 
& McShea, at Atlantic City, where it was exliibited until Monday, April 1. On 
the next morning it was sent by express to Washington. 

I examined it for the first time in Atlantic City on March 29. It was then 
lying on the floor of the skating rink in such a position that the under surfaces were 
concealed, and, as the teeth were not visible, I mistook it for a female. Upon .its 
arrival in Washington, however, where it could be examined under more favorable 
circumstances, it proved to be a male. The following measurements were taken 
from the fresh specimen: 

External dimensions of a specimen of M. europseusfrom Atlantic City, New Jersey. 

Ft. in. 

Total length (in a straight line) VI 6 

Tip of beak to base of dorsal fin (along the back) 7 GJ 

Tip of beak to ba?e of pectoral fin (along the back) 2 11 

Length of pectoral fin along center 11 

Greatest breadth of pectoral fin 3| 

Height of dorsal fin (in a straight line) 6 

Length of base of dorsal fin 1 2 

Breadth of flukes (tip to tip) 2 11 

Depth of tail 11 inches in front of posterior margin of flukes 8J 

Tip of beak to angle of mouth 9 J 

Tip of beak to eye 1 S\ 

Length of eye 1 

Breadth of blowhole 4 

Tip of beak to right angle of blowhole 1 ci 

a From the inside, without the cartilaginous tip. 

t> Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 10, 1888-89, p. 13. 

c Amer. Nat., vol. 40, 1906, p. 357. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIIDiE TRUE. 21 

EXTERNAL FORM AND COLOR. 

The general form was slender and elongate. The beak sloped gradually from 
its extremity to the forehead, and tiiere was no constriction separating the beak 
from the remainder of the head. Behind the blowhole, the outline of the back 
commenced at a higher level, but immediately curved slightly downward, indicating 
the position of the neck. The line then rose gradually until the anterior base of the 
dorsal fin was reached. Behind the fin the outline sloped downward gradually to 
the flukes. 

The dorsal fin was relatively small, falcate, and obtusely terminated. The 
distance in front of its anterior base was three-fifths of the total length. Its posterior 
margin was continuous with the ridge of the back, which extended to the flukes and 
terminated abruptly a little anterior to the middle point of the antero-posterior 
breadth of the flukes. In front of the fin the back was rounded. 

The pectoral fins were .small and were placed low down on the sides. Their 
anterior base was as far removed from the eye (in a straight line) as the eye was 
from the extremity of the beak. Their shape was somewhat different from that 
of the flippers of M. hidens figured by Sir William Tiu'ner." Their anterior margin 
was nearly straight throughout; the extremity was evenly and distinctly rounded 
off. The posterior margin was slightly convex in the distal half and straight 
proximally. 

The conformation of the region of the axifla was quite pecuUar. The hard 
integument of the posterior margm of the flipper was continued proximally inward 
and forward to a point near the head of the humerus. The triangular area between 
this stifT edge and the side of the body was occupied by a thin, soft, M'rinlded skin, 
in the middle of which the olecranon could be felt. On the side of the body this 
soft integument occupied an area nearly as large as the flipper, the underlying thick 
layer of blubber ending abruptly, especially below. A depression was thus formed 
in which the flippers could be placed so as to be ahnost in the same general plane 
with surroundmg surfaces of the body. They are probably so placed when the 
animal is swimming. 

The flukes had the general hmate form common to all species of the order. The 
posterior margin is not divided in the center. Its middle third was convex ; its 
lateral thirds concave. In tliese and other respects the shape of the flukes agreed 
closely witli Sir William Turner's excellent figure of 31. bidens.'' The antero-poste- 
rior breadth of the flukes was, however, somewhat greater in proportion to their 
transverse breadth than is indicated in this figure. The caudal peduncle termi- 
nated above at a point 6i inches in front of -the posterior margin of the flukes. On 
this margin were situated three star-shaped white scars, which appeared to mark 
the points of attachment of crustacean parasites. 

The margins of the ujijjer jaw were verj" obtuse posteriorly, the rostrum being 
covered with a layer of Ijlubber of gradually increasing tliickness. A depression 

a Journ. Anat. Phys., voL 20, pi. 4, figs. 2 and 3, Oct. 1885. 
6 Idem, pL 4, fig. 1. 



22 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

bounded by gradually converging lines extended 41 inches back of the angle of the 

mouth. I r 1 r 

The inferior surface of the bony palate extended below the level of the lips, 
and the sides of the former were visible upon looking into the mouth laterally. 

The blowhole wtis large and somewhat inisymmetrically placed, the right angle 
being the more anterior. The concavity was forward. 

The e3'e was situated a little below the line of the mouth and 20^ inches from 
the extremity of the snout. 

The external opening of the ear was 2} inches behind the posterior angle of 
the eye, and a little below the line of the lower eyelid. 

the two throat -furrows were of unequal length. The left furrow was 6? inches 
long, and its anterior end was distant 8| inches from the extremity of the jaw. The 
right furrow did not extend quite so far forward, and was 7| inches long. 

The furrows converged posteriorly; they were separated by an interval of 
f inches anteriorly and .5^ inches posteriorly. Between the anterior ends of the 
main furrows was a small one, about an inch long, but it is doubtful whether this 
was a natural fissure. I did not observe it when the whale was in Atlantic City. 

The natural color of the specimen had largely disappeared before I examined 
it, but Captain Gaskell and others who saw it while still fresh agreed that it was 
very dark slate-gray on the back, lighter on the sides, and whitish on the belly. I 
observed that a broad area between the pectoral fins was slate-gray, and contrasted 
with the white of the throat and belly. The whitish color ended somewhat abruptly 
and irregularly at the anus, and the flukes, as well as the pectoral and dorsal fins, 
were probably very dark slate-gray, or blackish, when fresh. 

The epidermis was exceedingly smooth and glossy throughout. 

The tongue was purplish-white. The roof of the mouth was black, except at 
the posterior end, where there was an irregular area of pinkish-white. 

The integument of the roof of the mouth was smooth and shining. Its surface 
was convex at the extremity of the beak, but the central portion was concave, 
while at the posterior end it was again raised into a rounded pad. In these respects 
the shape of the integuments coincided with that of the underlying maxilla;, upon 
which they were closely fitted. The sides were rounded, and a shallow groove inter- 
vened between them and tlie lips. This groove was continued around the roof of 
the mouth behind, and formed a demarcation between this part and the oesophagus. 

The tip of the tongue was 7^ inches from the extremity of the jaw. It was 
oval in outline, the extremity is obtuse, and it was entirely bound down. The 
margin was entire, and not crenulate, as in many dolphins. 

Dorsal and ventral views of the stomach are shown in PI. 40, figs. 1 and 2; 
a dorsal view of the lungs in PI. 1.3, fig. .5; and of the jierineum in PI. 40, fig. 3. 
A description of the gross anatomy is reserved for a subsequent paper. 

The external dimensions of the Atlantic City specimen of M. europseus are 
given in tlie following table, together with those of nine European specimens of 
M. hidens taken from various authors, and assembled here for purposes of com- 
parison. The dimensions of the Annisquam specimen which, as already explained 
(p. 9), represents a third species, are also added. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TRUE. 



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24 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Since the foregoing account of europseus was written, a description of tlie 
type-skull, with two excellent photographic figures, has been published by L. 
Brasil," of the Caen Museum. A comparison of the figures with those of the Atlan- 
tic City and Long Branch skulls on Pis. 2 and 8 of the present article, confirms 
the identification of the latter specimens with M. europseus. Besides a brief descrip- 
tion of the tyi)e-skull M. Brasil's paper contains measurements and two text fig- 
ures of the right mandibular tooth, natural size. 



MESOPLODON STEJNEGERl True. 

Mesoplodon stejnegeri TnvE, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 8, p. 684. Oct. 19, 188.5. 

This species was originally described from a single cranium of a 3'oung indi- 
vidual, which was collected by Dr. L. Stejneger on Bering Island, Commander 
Group, Bering Sea, in 1883. With but a single skull, the characters of the species 
could not be very satisfactorily defuied, and some European cetologists have been 
inclined to doubt its validity.'' In 1904, however, another skull was obtained by 
the National Museum, which made it certain that the species was entirely distinct 
from J/, bidens or other known forms of the genus. Early in the j^ear mentioned 
Dr. D. S. Jordan, president of Stanford University, called my attentipn to a small 
whale, which stranded on the coast of Oregon, H miles south of the United States 
life-saving station on South Beach, Yaquina Bay, near Newport, in February, and 
proved later to represent the present species. Doctor Jordan's information was 
obtained from Mr. J. G. Crawford, of Albany, Oregon, who wrote him in part as 
follows, imder date of March 7, 1904: 

Herewith I enclose a stereograjjli of a head of a member of the whale family, which I made at 
Yaquina Bay, Oregon. The animal was 17 feet long, .with fluked tail, soft, smooth skin, blowhole on 
top of head, and two tusks in the mandible, but no [other] teeth in the mouth. The tusks are thin and 
apparently hollow. Length of head, 32 inches; width, 14 inches; height, 11 inches; blowhole, 5 inches. 
Eyes low on head. Width of mandible [jaw] at end: Upper, It inches; lower, IJ inches. Width 
between tusks, 3 inches. The blubber was about 2 inches thick on the head. It went ashore about 
the 1.5th of February, li miles south of the life-saving station on South Beach, 2i miles south of New- 
port, Oregon. The head had been severed before I arrived. 

A clipping from the Oregonian newspaper contains the following : 

Albany, Oregon, March 2 [1904]. A pecidiar specimen of the whale variety has been reported 
on the Oregon coast, near Newport. J. G. Crawford, of Albany, has just returned from a trip to New- 
port, where he made a picture of the head of the strange animal. The body was washed upon the beach 
during the recent storm which swept the coast. It is about 15 feet long. * * * Residents of the 
vicinity say they have never seen anything like it on the Oregon coast. * * * On either side of the 
mouth arc two villainous-looking tusks several inches in length. They are at the back of the mouth, 
and extend up to a level with the top of the upper jaw. They are very wide and flat, squared on top. 
The mouth has no other teeth. * * * 

a Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 6, vol. 1, pp. 216-225, pis. 1, 2 (skull); two text-figs, (tooth). 

b "The slight differences pointed out by Mr. True appear to be individual or local rather than spe- 
cific." (Yak Beneden, Les Ziphioides dea mere d'Europe, 1888, p. 100.) See also James A. Grieg, 
Bergens Museums Aarbog, 1897, No. 5, p. 19. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIIDiE TRUE. 25 

The head is equipped with a blowhole, like that of a whale. The eyes are very low, almost under- 
neath the lower jawe. 

The body is in a good stale of preservation, the flesh having been torn but little by the birds. 

On receipt of the foregoing information, letters were immediately addressed to 
Mr. Crawford and also to the keeper of the life-saving station at South Beach, 
Capt. Otto Wellander, asking that, if possible, the entire skeleton be preserved. 
Captain "VVellander replied that the whale had not been dead long when washed 
ashore; that he had tried to find the body, but that the high tides had either carried 
it away or buried it under driftwood. 

The skull when cleaned passed into the possession of Mr. J. G. Crawford, who 
sent to the Museum some excellent photographs of it, and also of the head before 
the flesh had been removed. Later he sent the skull itself to the Museum for my 
examination, and finally very generously presented it to the iluscum in exchange. 

The skull is that of an adult individual, in nearly perfect condition, with the 
mandible and teeth. The parts missing are the left malar, the left tympanic bone, 
the distal ends of the pterj'goids and the proximal ends of the premaxillae. (PI. 3, 
fig. 2.) 

SKULL. 

The Oregon skull exliibits all the characters included m the original diagnosis 
of the species," but two of these, namely, the lack of a groove in front of the pre- 
maxillary foramen, and the vertical position of the premaxillw distally, I do not 
at present consider of any importance, as they are shared by 21. hidens. The species, 
as represented by the Oregon skull, however, presents other characters which clearly 
differentiate it from any other species of the genius. As it is ^\•ithout a basirostral 
groove, it allies itself in that respect to M. hidens, europseus, and Jiectori. Unhke 
those species, it has the premaxillary foramen behind the maxillary foramen, and in 
this respect resembles deiisirostris and (jrayi. Perhaps the most salient characters in 
wliich stejnegen differs from hidens and all other known species are the erect position 
and flat surface of the supraoccipital and the very prominent backward extension 
of tlie frontal plate of the maxilla. This backward extension is so great that when 
the beak is horizontal a vertical line through the posterior margin of the maxilla 
passes considerably behind the temporal fossa. The only species which approaches 
stejnegeri in this respect is hectori, but in the latter the supraoccipital instead of 
being flat above the condyles is very strongly convex. 

Another very marked character of sfejnegeri is that the extension of the lateral 
free margin of the orbital plate of the frontal, anterior to the orbit, is equal to the 
length of the orbit itself. In hidens and all other known species this extension is 
only from one-third to one-half the length of the orbit. Numerous other dis- 
guishing characters will be mentioned in the course of the following description of 
stejnegeri, which is drawn from the ailidt Oregon skull, but modified when necessary 
by reference to the type skull from Bering Island. Comparisons are made chiefly 
with M. hidens, which is on the whole the best known species. 

"Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 8, 18S5, p. 585. 



26 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

In the Oregon skull of stejnegeri, the breadth between the post-orbital processes 
does not exceed the length from the occipital condyles to the maxillary notches. 
The skull is, therefore, narrower in proportion to its length than in any other species 
of the genus except licdori, as represented by the skull figured by Flower. This 
skull was, however, that of a young individual. It is probable that in adults of 
this species the skull is broader than in stejnegen. 

In the latter species, again, the lengtii of the brain-case, between the occipital 
condyles and the maxillary notches, is just equal to the distance from the latter 
point to the distal end of the niaxillaj, and the rostrum, including the premaxillse, 
is much shorter than in other species of Mcsoplodon, except hectori, as represented by 
the young skull above mentioned. 

The foramen magnum is very small, being less in width than the condyle on 
either side of it. In this respect it differs widely from hidens and other species (as 
far as can be ascertained from the figures available) , except europse-us, in which the 
relative size is about the same. 

The supraoccipital rises vertically above each condyle to the very top of the 
skull, being neither convex nor strongly bent forward as in other species, and espe- 
ciall.v hidens. In the median line, however, while the occipital bone is flat imme- 
ately above the foramen magnum, it is deeply concave higher up and without a 
median ridge. The outline of the occipital crest, viewed from beliind, is semicircular. 
In all the foregoing characters the occipital region differs widely from that of bidejjs 
and other species. The only close resemblance is found in tlie old skull of europseus 
from Long Branch, New Jersey, and even here the sides of the occipital above are 
far less prominent, their outline is much more convex, the occipital crest is angular, 
and the median depression is less pronounced. 

Dorsal aspect (PI. 3, figs. 1, 2). — The most noticeable feature of the upper 
surface of the skull is the large backward extension of the frontal plates of the 
maxillffi, the free margins of which converge strongly. The outline of the ante- 
orbital region is rounded. The anteorbital notch is a shallow emargination. Ante- 
rior to this is a second still shallower emargination, the "pseudo-notch." The 
margin between the two is much thickened, but does not form a distinct projection 
or tubercle, as in hidens and other species. The superior orifices of the nares are 
unsymmetrical as regards position, the left being somewhat in advance of the right. 
The maxillae are concave around the maxillary foramen, and external to this foramen 
is an elongated ridge about as in europseus. The rostral portion of the maxilla? is 
broad at the base but tapers more rapidly than in hidens. The margin is thick. 
At the middle of the beak the outline of the maxillte at a lower level is visible from 
above, which is not the case in hidens or europseus. Tiie rostral portion of the 
premaxilhe is oblique proximally and vertical distally. Unlike hidens, these edges 
arc sharp throughout. The mesethmoid ends opposite the maxillary foramina. 
Anterior to it is seen the concave upper surface of the vomer, which, however, 
becomes flat distally. At about the middle of the beak the anterior end is clasped 
by the posterior forked end of a " mesirostral " ossification, which has a convex 
surface. This ossification begins proximally below the edges of the premaxillre, 
but its surface rises gradually anteriorly, and at the end of the beak it is much above 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TKUE. 27 

the premaxillse. The end of the beak consists of the consolidated mass of the pre- 
maxillfe and mesirostral ossification, the whole being convex above and below, but 
flat on the sides. The ossification has a deep median groove, which reaches to 
within 95 mm. of the tip of the beak. 

It will be seen that the conformation of the upper surface of the beak is quite 
different from that of bidens or any other species. 

The maxillary foramina are large and directed forward, and have a distinct 
broad channel in front of them. In the Oregon skull the right foramen is single, 
but the left divided into two. The premaxillary foramina are a little behind the 
maxillary foramina. The distance between the maxillary foramina is less than 
that from the median line to the anteorbital notch. In bidens it is much greater. 

Lateral aspect (PI. 9, figs. 1, 2). — A most noteworthy feature of the skull when 
viewed from the side is the great length between the orbit and the maxillarj- notch, 
which far exceeds that found in bidens and other species, being equal to the length 
of the orbit itself. The latter is about as long as tiie temporal fossa, which is some- 
wiiat flattened above, as in europxus. The outline of the supraoccipital is straight 
and nearly vertical. Tiie zygomatic is more massive even than europxus and is 
especially thick below. The inferior outline of the beak is convex proximally as in 
europseus and layardi. There is no basirostral groove, the edges of the maxillae 
being very thick in front of the maxillary notch. Over the orbit the maxillae are 
thick and beveled, but not raised as in howdoini. 

Ventral aspect (PI. 6, figs. 1, 2). — The beak is convex in the proximal half, much 
as in europseus, but farther forward is concave, except in the median line, where 
there is a narrow ridge formed proximally by the vomer, which in the type skull 
appears as a narrow lozenge 60 mm. long. In the adult Oregon skull it is anchylosed 
with the premaxillse. The maxillte extend to within 107 mm. of the end of the beak. 
The under surface of the beak is much more like that of europseus than of bidens. 

A narrow strip of the palatines extends around the base of the pterygoids in 
front, but the two strips do not meet in the median line. In the type-skull they 
do not extend inside the pterygoids. The expanded anterior end of the malar is 
very long and also forms the bottom of the maxillary notch, which is the case in 
europseus but not in bidens. The inferior borders of the pterygoids are convex 
anteriorly, as in europseus, and are continued laterally, so that the sinus is deep as in 
that species. The lachrymal is very long, the free margin having a length of 55 mm. 
The posterior margin of the zygomatic process is concave, rather than convex as in 

bidens. 

The tympanic bulla does not differ materially from that of bidens in size or 
shape, as far as can be judged from the figures given in Van Beneden and Gervais' 
Osteography (plate 26, figs. 4, 4fl). The periotic is similar in size to the same bone in 
bidens, but the posterior end is more narrowly pointed and the anterior end is 
much lower, relatively. In europseus, as far as can be determined from tiie material 
at hand, the form and size of the earbone is similar to that of stejnegen, but in the 
latter the anterior margin of the tympanic bulla is more naarly transverse and the 
posterior inferior groove is curved. (PI. 35, fig. 2.) 
24765— Bull. 73—10 3 



28 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Ill the Aiiiiisquam skull, supposed to represent densirostris, although from a 
young individual, the earbone is very much larger, especially the periotic, which is 
also quite differently shaped. 

MANDIBLE. 

The miindible of stefnegen is much broken in the region of the angle on both 
sides, but otherwise complete. As compared with a mandible of an adult hidens, 
the most conspicuous differences are the shortness of the symphysis, the sharp 
upward bend of the inferior margin anteriorly, and the large size of the alveolus. 
The symphysis in the adult Oregon specimen of stcjnegeri is 140 mm. long, or scarcely 
more than in the young specimen of eurofxus from New Jersey, and exactly the 
same as in the adult type-specimen of the latter species, as figui'ed by Van Beneden 
and Gervais. The alveolus lies entirely behind the symphj'sis, its anterior end 
being 160 mm. from the anterior end of the jaw. It is 113 mm. long and 18 mm. 
wide. The mandible is 62 mm. high at its middle point. The coronoid process is 
more anteriorly situated than in iidcns and the portion of the posterior margin of 
the ramus which remains indicates that the angle was strongly directed backward. 
(PL 11, fig. 4; pi. 12, fig. 1.) 

TEETH. 

The teeth are remarkable for their size and form. They are somewhat more 
than twice as broad as teeth of adult males of hidens, as shown by the figures of 
Lankoster " and Grieg,'' and also a little longer. They are, in fact, probably broader 
than, or at least as broad as, the teeth of any other species of Mesoplodon, not except- 
ing hyardi. Sir William Turner remarks regarding a specimen of layardi examined 
by him that "the breadth of the tooth, where it emerged from the alveolus, was 
3^ inches." = lie does not state, however, whether the measurement was taken 
along the top of the alveolus, at an angle with the transverse axis of the tooth, or 
along the transverse axis itself. At all events, the teeth figured by Owen and 
others are much less than 3^ inches broad. The teeth of adult europseus are only 
2 inches broad, and of hidens, as already stated, 1^ inches broad. 

In stejnegeri (PI. 12, figs. 1-3) the portion of the tooth above the alveolus is 
inclined slightly inward and backward, but the pointed tip curves outward so ^s 
to be vertical. When extracted from the alveolus, the whole tooth is found to be 
concave internally and convex externally. The posterior margin is convex and the 
anterior sinuous, a slight convexity occurring on the portion which projects above 
the alveolus. In this place the outer coating of cement is broken through, showing 
the underhing dentine or osteo-dentine, which is somewhat corroded or absorbed. 
This is particularly noticeable on the left tooth. 

The upper margin of the tooth is transverse, or nearly at right angles with the 
anterior and posterior margins. The posterior angle is rounded and the anterior 
raised into an acute point by the projection of the dentine as a distinct, sharp cusp. 

a Trans. Roy. Micr. Soc.,'vol. 15, 1867, pi. 5, figs. 1, 2. 

b Bergens Mus. Aarb., 1904, No. 3, p. 26, fig. 10. 

c Sci. F-esuIts of the Voy. of the Challenger, Zool., vol. 1, pt. 4, Bones of Cetacea, 1880, p. 13. 



f? 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ — TRUE. 



29 



The inferior end of the tooth is cut off obliqueh^ and the margin is broken by numer- 
ous prominent rugosities. The surface of all that part of the tooth which is con- 
tained in the alveohis and covered by the gum above it is rugose, while the part 
above the gum is quite smooth and highly polished. 

The right tooth has the following dimensions (in straight Unes): Length of 
anterior border, 150 mm.; length of posterior border, 107; length of superior border, 
54; lengthof inferior border, 86; average length of exposed dentine tip, 10; greatest 
breadth of tooth, antero-posteriorly, 81 ; greatest breadth of tooth, transversely, 
15; distance from center of base of exposed portion, when in position in the 
alveolus, to tip of dentine projection, 82; distance from center of base of portion 
above the gum to tip of dentine projection, 70; distance from center of base 
of portion above the gum to center of inferior margin, 76. 

The dimensions of the skulls are as follows, those of the type-specimen having 
been revised a,nd corrected: 

Dimensions of tiro skulls of M. stejnegeri. 



Measurements. 



Totallength 

Length of rostrum 

Distance from occipital condyles to distal end of maxillae. . 

Breadth between centers of orbits 

Breadth between zygomatic processes 

Breadth between temporal foss:e 

Breadth between postorbital processes of Irontals 

Breadth of rostrum at base (between maxillary notches) - 

Breadth of rostrum at middle 

Depth of rostrum at middle 

Greatest breadth of anterior nares 

Greatest breadth of premaxillae proximally 

Greatest breadth of premaxillEe in front of nares , 

Length of temporal fossa 

Depth of temporal fossa 

Antero-posterior length of orbit 

Breadth of foramen magnum 

Length of tympanic bulla 

Breadth of tympanic bulla 

Length of mandible 

Length of symphysis 

Distance from anterior end of mandible to alveolus 



143132 
U.S.N.M. 
Yaquina 

Bay, 
Oregon, 

adult. 


21112 

U.S.N.M. 

Bering Id. 

Type 

(1715), 

young. 


7^5 
413 


633 
325 


612 


667 


309 


279 


310 


278 


228 


212 


323 




172 


1>158 


40 


44 


52 


42+ 


56 


54 


130 


118 


IDS 


109 


92 


80 


63 


46 


96 


82 


38 


39 


48 




32 




610 




138 




166 





o Tip of rostrum lacking. 

6 The skull is much worn around the left notch and the measurement is only approximate. 

EXTERNAL FORM. 

The photograph of the head (PI. 40, fig. 4) shows that the end of the beak was 
quite blunt, and the lower jaw quite a little longer than the upper. The superior 
margin of the lower jaw, which is concave in front of the tooth, is strongly convex 
and elevated at the side of it and behind it. The inferior margin of the upper jaw 



30 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

is Straight anteriorly, but farther back appears to be pressed upward by the tooth. 
An examination of the skull shows that the mandible can be lowered so that the 
teeth are below the upper jaw, but when so lowered the space between the teeth 
and the upper jaw on each side is barely a quarter of an inch (6 mm.). With the 
integuments in place, it is doubtful whether the mouth could be opened any wider 
than is shown in the photograph. The convexity of the head, shape of the blow- 
hole, position of the eye, etc., do not appear to differ materially from the same 
characters in adults of M. bidens. 



Genus ZIPHIUS Cuvier. 

ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS Cuvier. 

ZipMus caviroslris Cuvier, Oss. foss., 2d ed., vol. 5, 1823, p. 353. 
Eyperoodon gervami Duvernoy, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 3, ZooL, vol. 5, 1851, p. 49. 
Ziphiiis gcrvaisii Fischer, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. 3, 1867, p. 55. 
Eyperoodon semi-junctus Cofe, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 15. 
Ziphius semijunclus Trve, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 8, 1886, p. 586. 
Ziphius grebnitzkii Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 6, 1883, p. 77. 

It has not seemed to me necessary in the present connection to attempt to cite 
all the multitudinous names which have been given to this species, especially as 
those zoologists most competent to judge, including Van Beneden, Flower, and 
Turner, after detailed consideration, have concluded that but one species of Ziphius, 
or at most two species, exist at present." 

Nearly all the skulls in European museums are assigned by the zoologists men- 
tioned to Z. caviroslris proper, but some doubt has been entertained regarding two 
or three European skulls, and one specimen from Argentina, described by Bur- 
meister. These last-mentioned specimens have been thought to possibly represent 
a second species, Z. gervaisii. The principal characters of the latter are the narrow, 
flat premaxillse, the lack of a prominent mesirostral ossification, and small teeth. 
From the large series of skulls in the National Museum, I am able to dispose of the 
doubt concerning Z. gervaisii. I find that wherever the characters above men- 
tioned occur the sex (when known) is female. There is every reason, therefore, to 
believe that Z. gervaisii is the female of Z. caviroslris.'' I will return to this point 
again later. 

In 1865 Cope described a species from Charleston, South Carolina, under the 
name of Hyperoodon semijunclus. In 1886 I referred it to the genus Ziphius, but 

"See the following: 
Turner, W.— Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 26, 1872, p. 769. 
Flower, W. H.— Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, p. 477. 
Fischer, P. — Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. 35, 1881, p. 113. 
Van Beneden, P. J. — Les Ziphioides des Mers d'Europe, 1888, p. 82. 
6 An immature male might, of course, present the characters of the female, but in the former case 
the teeth would be open at the roots and but slightly, if at all, coated with cement. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TRUE. 31 

was in doubt as to its specific identity. I thought that it might represent Z. ger- 
vaisii, which is interesting in the present connection because the type-specimen was 
a female. 

In 1883 Dr. L. Stejneger described a species which he had discovered on Bering 
Island, Bering Sea, under the name of Z. grebnitzkii. Through the instrumentality 
of Doctor Stejneger and Governor Grebnitzki, the National Museum later received 
a large series of skulls from the same locality. The question of whether this species 
is identical with Z. cavirostris, or distinct, has caused me much study, and forms 
the principal subject of this chapter. 

The National Museum has at present the foUowmg material, which may be 
considered as certainly representing Z. cavirostris: 

1. A complete skeleton and cast of an adult female, 19 feet 4 inches long, 
obtained at Barnegat City, New Jersey, October 3, 1883. Cat. No. 20971. 

2. A complete skeleton and photographs of an adult male, 20 feet 1 inch long, 
obtained at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1901, through Dr. E. A. Meams, Mr. L. di Z. 
Mearns, and Capt. Gus Soderman. Cat. No. 49599. 

3. The collection contains also the skeleton of the young female individual 
obtained at Charleston, South Carolina, prior to 1865, which constitutes the type of 
Hyperoodon semijunctus Cope. It was originally in the Charleston College Museum, 
but later was received by the National Museum in exchange. This individual was 
between 12 and 13 feet long. Cat. No. 21975. 

In addition, the national collections contain the following material, known to, 
or supposed to, represent the species Z. grebnitzkii: 

4. Cat. No. 20993. Skull of amale (?)." Collected by Dr. L. Stejneger mBermg 
Island, 1882. Grig. No. 1521. Type of Ziphius grebnitzkii. 

5.' Cat. No. 21245. Skull. Grig. No. 1758. 

6. Cat. No. 21246. Skull. Grig. No. 2531. 

7. Cat. No. 21247. Skull. Grig. No. 1849. 

8. Cat. No. 21248. Skull of a male (?).« 

9. Cat. No. 83991. Skull. 

The five skulls preceding were also collected by Doctor Stejneger m Bermg 
Island in 1882 and 1883. 

10. Cat. No. 22069. Skull of a female (?)." 

11. Cat. No. 22874. Skull. 

12. Cat. No. 22875. Bones of an immature individual. 

These three specimens were collected and presented by N. Grebnitzki. 

13 Cat No. 142579. A series of photographs of an individual captured m 
Kiska Harbor, Alaska, September, 1904. Presented by Dr. J. Hobart Egbert. 

14. Cat. No. 84906. Photograph of the skeleton of an uidividual washed ashore 
at St. Simon Island, Georgia, in 1893, and belonging to Mr. W. Arnold. 

In the genus ZipUus, as in other ziphioid genera, a study of the characters of the 
skull appears to afford the best basis for discrimination of species. We have first to 
consider whether the North American species is the same as the European and New 

a Ab to reaaons for assigning sexes thus, see p. 55. 



32 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Zealand species, and afterwards whether the North Pacific species is identical with 
or distinct from these. 

The published measurements of specimens from the coasts of Europe and New 
Zealand, currently believed to represent the single species Z. cavirostris, are rather 
meager, and, furthermore, prove, on examination, to present so little uniformity 
that they are of limited use for comparison with measurements of skulls from the 
Atlantic coast of the United States. About all that can be said is that the latter 
skulls are of about the snrae size as the former and that the proportions do not pre- 
sent any strilcing difl'erences. For detailed measurements of the American skulls, 
see page 53. 

On account of the uncertainty as regards the measurements, I have had recourse 
to the published descriptions and figures, especially those of Van Beneden, Sir 
William Turner, and Doctor Haast. So far as I can perceive, there is nothing in 
these descriptions that is not applicable to the skulls Nos. 49599 and 20971, from 
Newport, Rhode Island, and Barnegat City, New Jersey, respectively, in the National 
Museum, and I can find no reason for regarding the latter other than as representa- 
tives of Z. cavirostris. 

HISTORY OF THE NEWPORT, RHODE ISLAND, SPECIMEN. 

Of the Newport specimen. No. 49599, the Museum has the complete skeleton, 
together with external measurements and a photograph. From data at hand it 
appears that the animal was originally obtained in Narragansett Bay about October 
30, 1901, and afterwards towed to Fort Adams, near Newport. A few days later it 
was sent adrift again and stranded in the harbor of Dutch Island, near Canonicut 
Island, which is opposite Newport. While at Fort Adams its existence was made 
known to the Museum by Dr. E. A. Mearns, U. S. Army, and his son, Louis Mearns; 
and a preparator was sent to obtain the skeleton. With the aid of Captain Soder- 
man, of the government tug Monroe, he found it at Dutch Island, and reported that 
it was a male, 20 feet 1 inch in length, measured along the curves of the back (18 
feet 6 inches in a straight line). The epidermis was nearly all lacking, but the back 
appeared to have been black. The length in a straight line, as reported by Mr. Louis 
Mearns, was 1 9 feet. The complete measurements taken by the preparator, Mr. J. 
W. ScoUick, are as follows: 

External dimensions of Ziphius cavirostris, male, Cat. No. 49599, U.S.N.M., Newport, Rhode Island. 

Ft. in. 

Total length, along curve of back 20 1 

Total length, in straight line 18 6 

Tip of snout to posterior margin of dorsal fin 13 lo 

Tip of.snout to axilla 5 2 

Tip of snout to eye 2 5i 

Tip of snout to anterior margin of blowhole 2 4 

Length of mouth \ 1 

Breadth of blowhole 5i 

Length of pectoral fin, from head of humerus to tip, straight 2 2 

Vertical height of dorsal fin 10 

Breadth of flukes, from tip to tip 5 3 

Greatest girth (estimated) 10 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIIDiE TKUE. 33 

The breadth of the pectoral fin, as shown by the skeleton, was 5f inches. 
The photograph, which is reproduced in PI. 41, fig. 4, gives a good idea of 
the general form of the animal. 

HISTORY OF THE BARNEGAT CITY, NEW JERSEY, SPECIMEN. 

Of the Barnegat City specimen. No. 20971, the Museum has the complete 
skeleton, together with a cast of one-half of the entire animal, and another of the 
head, and some measurements, all of which were obtained by Mr. William Palmer 
and myself October 3, 1883. The Museum received notice of the stranding of this 
specimen from Capt. J. H. Ridgway, of the United States life-saving station at 
Barnegat City. It was an adidt female, 19 feet 4 inches long in a straight line. 
The complete measurements, taken in straiglit lines with a rod and cord, are as 
follows : 

External dimensions of ZipMiis cavirostris, female, Cat. A'o. 20971, U.S.N.M., Barnegat City, New Jersey. 

(Measured in straight lines with rope and bar.) 

Ft. in. 

Total length 19 4 

Tip of snout to eyes 2 1 

Tip of snout to blowhole 2 

Tip of snout to anterior base of pectoral fin 3 lOJ 

Tip of snout to anterior base of dorsal fin 12 

Tip of snout to anterior angle of vent 12 SJ 

Tip of snout to corner of mouth llj 

Length of anterior margin of pectoral fin 2 IJ 

Length along center of pectoral fin 1 7 

Greatest breadth across pectoral fin 6} 

Length of anterior margin of dorsal fin 1 6 

Length of base of dorsal fin 1 

Vertical height of dorsal fin 1 

Breadth of flukes from tip to tip 5 5 

Antero-posterior length of flukes 1 7 

Length of eye 2 

Breadth of eye 1 

Girth around eyes 3 IJ 

Girth at anterior margin of dorsal fin 7 OJ 

Girth at root of pectoral fins 6 J 

Breadth of lower jaw at middle of length 4 J 

Breadth of upper jaw at middle of length 5 

Breadth of blowhole 5 

Distance from posterior angle of eye to ear 4 J 

I neglected to make a full description of the color, but noted that it was stone 
gray, lighter above and darker below; snout nearly white. The cast, which was 
painted from a sketch made at Barnegat City and from pieces of skin brought to 
Washington, bears out this note in general, but with modifications. The color 
of the body as a whole is gray tinged with dull yellowish. The gray is darker on 
the back than on the belly, but on the latter is a large area of dark brown, reaching 
from near the pectoral fins to and beyond the anus, and halfwaj' up on the sides. 
On this dark area are several large oval whitish blotches, some two inches in 



34 



BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



diameter. Both upper and lower jaws nearly to the angle of the mouth are cream 
white. On the sides and belly the gray color is speckled with black spots of about 
the size of a grain of wheat. The pectoi'al fins are dark gray above and below; 
the flukes were similarly colored. 

A comparison of the dimensions of the two specimens above described with 
those of European and New Zealand specimens is afforded by the following table 
(the measurements bemg reduced to percentages of the total length): 

External dimensions of Ziphius cavirostris. (Reduced to percentages of the total length.) 



Measurements. 



Total length 

Tip of snout to posterior margin of dorsal. 

Tip of snout to axilla 

Tip of snout to eye 

Tip of snout to anterior end blowhole 

Length of mouth 

Breadth of blowhole 

Length of pectoral from head of humerus. 

Length of pectoral from a.xilla 

Greatest breadth of pectoral fin 

Vertical height of dorsal fin 

Breadth of flukes, tip to tip fin 



Newport, 

Rhode Island, 

49599 U.S..N..M., 

male, 1901. 



Fl. in. 
"20 1 



Per cent. 

69.0 

25.3 

* 12. 2 

11.2 

5.4 

2.3 

10.8 

''7.5 

12.4 

4.1 

26.1 



Ft. in. 
MS G 



Per cent. 
74.8 
28.0 
13.3 
12.6 

5.9 

2.5 
11.7 

8.1 
I 2.6 

4.5 
28.4 



Barnegat 

City, 

New 

Jersey, 

20971 

U.S.N.M., 

female 

1883. 



Ft. in. 
6 19 4 



Per cent. 
67.2 
<;20.0 
10.8 
10.4 
«5.0 
2.2 



2.9 

5.2 
28. 



New 
Brighton, 

New 
Zealand 
female. 



Ft. in. 
19 6 



Per cent. 

[67.1 

<i24.4 

12 8 



6.4 

2.6 

7 12.8 



3.0 
3.4 

31.2 



Punta, 

Corsica, 

1842. 



Ft. in. 
19 



Per cent. 
[78.5] 



S8.3 
2.9 
3.5 



Buenos 
Ayres, 
Argen- 
tina, 
male. 
1865. 



Ft. in. 
12 1» 



Per cent. 
[70.8] 
[25.0] 
10.9 
11.4 
/5.3 
1.2 



3.0 

4.3 

27.3 



Curvilinear. 
6 Straight. 

c To anterior base. 

d Lower jaw to "l>ocinning of pectoral." 

' From tip of upper jaw. 

/ From tip of lower jaw. 

s Points of measurements not specified. 

* From the bones; from outer anterior margin of pro.ximal expansion of ulna. 

* .\long center. 

1 From the bones. The external measurement originally taken by ScoUick is entirely too large. 

* The skull gives this measurement as 10.4 per cent. The original measurement by ScoUick Is entirely 

too large and can not bo correct. The same is probably true regarding length to blowhole, but I 
can not prove it. 

The close correspondence in proportions shown in tiiis table favors the idea 
of specific identity, and taken with the similarity in size, and characters of the 
skull, warrants, I think, the assumption that the specimens from the Atlantic 
coast of the United States belong to Z. cavirostris. 

COLORATION. 

It should be remarked, however, that the Barnegat City specimen does not 
agree in color with any of the European or New Zealand specimens. On the other 
hand, the latter show a most extraordmary diversity in color, some being black, 
with the head and back as far as the dorsal fin white; others all black above, white 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TRUE. 35 

below, and the head black and bro\vn. The color of the young specimen from 
Buenos Ayres, Argentina, is described by Burmeister as follows: 

All the body of the animal is of a light gray color, a little yellowish, resembling the color of light 
ash, but much darker on the back and much lighter on the belly. The fins are much darker than the 
back— almost black— and the large fin of the tail has a very pure white area of irregular shape on the 
underside. 

If the indications from the skull and proportions are trustworthy Z. camrostris 
must be a species in which the color is very variable, differing perhaps in the two 
sexes, or with differences in age. This is, however, by no means certain at present, 
and whether the diversities of color reported in different specimens are merely 
individual variations, or are due to post-mortem changes, remains to be discov- 
ered. It will be noticed that the color of the Argentme specimen is nearest to 
that of the Barnegat City specimen. 

TYPE OF ZIPHIUS SEMIJUNCTUS (COPE). 

The type-specimen of ZipUus semijunctus (Cope), as ah-eady mentioned, is a 
young female." The most noticeable characters which it presents are that the 
premaxillffi are flat proxinially, and that the teeth are small, sharp-pointed and 
open at the roots. The form of the teeth is undoubtedly due to immaturity, but 

o Cope's original description of this species was as follows: 

" Hyperodon semijunctus, sp. nov. The question whether a Hyperodon visits this side of the Atlan- 
tic, has at length been solved by the description which I have received through Dr. Alexander Wil- 
cocks of this city, of a species taken in Charleston Harbor. This is well drawn up by Gabriel Mani- 
gault, who set up the specimen, which adorns the Charleston Museum. The points wherein it evidently 
differs from its congeners, the B. bidens and latifrons, are, first, the separation of the four posterior cer- 
vical vertebrae, the three anterior only being solidly anchylosed, instead of the seven, as in the known 
species, even in the young, according to Dr. J. E. Gray. Second, the possession of one or more pairs 
of ribs added to the flying series, and of two more vertebrae, including ten dorsal instead of nine. 
(Nine are given by Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, viii, 188; and Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 419, 
for the bidens.) Five ribs are connected with the sternum, of which the anterior articulates with the 
seventh cervical by its inferior head. 

"I extract the following from Gabr. Manigault's description: 

" 'The superior maxillary bones are quite pointed in front and widen out toward the base of the 
snout. Their lateral edges become developed on each side into a prominent vertical ridge, which ia 
slightly convex on the outer surface, and the reverse on the inner. These bones, after having widened 
out upon approaching the orbits, ascend vertically along with the occipital (the two together holding 
the frontal, which is quite perceptible, between them) and form at the back of the head a transverse 
ridge, which is quite high and very thick. From my not knowing by what name it was known, I did 
not satisfy myself concerning the presence of palatine tubercles. Another peculiarity of the head con- 
sists in the lower maxillary bones being provided each at its point with a single small and very sharp 
tooth. These were not noticed during the dissection, owing to their being too much imbedded in the 
integuments; they are now, however, quite visible. In the cavity of the skull is a septum of bone 
separating the cerebrum from the cerebellum (t. e., the tentorium). The first rib is very wide and 
short, and presents a marked contrast to the others. The sternum is quite flat and wide. The pectoral 
fins are small, and have been carefully preserved, with the various carpal and phalangeal bones kept 
together by their natural ligaments. As the skeleton stands, the fins consist only of the scapula, the 
humerus, the radius, and the ulna, with but few phalanges. 

" 'The length of this specimen is between twelve and thirteen feet.' " {Proc. Acad. Kat. Sci. Phila., 
1865, p. 15.) 



36 



BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



as the shape of the proinaxilUw is similar to that found in the nominal species ger- 
vaisii, it might be thought necessary to refer semijunctus to the latter species. As 
will 1)0 siiown later, however, this form of the premaxillffi appears to be charac- 
teristic of the adult female of caiirostns, and of immature individuals of either 
sex, the young, as in many kinds of animals, resembling the adult female rather 
than the male. 

I have been able to find but one character in the skull of semijunctus which might 
be regarded as specific. This is that the lachrymal bone is thick distally, and cut 
off sciuarc at the end. In other specimens of Ziphius examined it is thin and flat, 
antl rounded or pointed at the end. As there is much individual variation in the form 
of the lachrymal, this peculiarity alone is, in my opinion, an insufficient indication 
of the validity of the species. 

COMPARISON OF SKELETONS. 

A comparison of the skeletons of the three individuals fi-om the Atlantic coast 
of the United States reveals a number of differences of more or less importance. 
Were it not for the lack of reliable differences in the skulls, it might be considered 
that these variations in other parts of the skeletons indicated specific difference. 
I am disposed, however, since the Barnegat and Newport specimens are of opposite 
sexes, to regard them partly as sexual and partly as individual. In the case of the 
Charleston specimen {semijunctus), the skeleton, besides being immature, has been 
very much damaged by careless handling, and nearly all the bones are somewhat 
abraded. It is, therefore, only available to a limited extent for purposes of com- 
parison. As no description of a Ziphius skeleton from the coast of the United States 
has, so far as I am aware, been published hitherto, and as descriptions of skeletons of 
Old World specimens are few and rather brief, I shall give below a detailed compara- 
tive description of the American specimens. For the sake of brevit}', I shall refer 
to each specimen merely by the locality. 

VERTEBRAL COLUMN AS A WHOLE. 

The vertebral formula in the three North American specimens and in four Old 
World specimens and Burmeister's Argentine specimen is as follows: 

Vertebral formula of Ziphius caviroslris. 



Locality and sex. 



Newport, Rhode Island, male; 

Barnegat City, New Jersey, female 

Charleston, South Carolina, female 

Holma, Sweden (Malm) 

Pisa Museum (\'an Beneden) 

Warrington, New Zealand (Scott and Parker) 

Lyttleton Harbor, New Zealand ( Uaast) 

Buenos Ayres, Argentina (Burmeister), male. 



C. 



Th. 



Ca. 



20 

18( + 1?) 
10(+3?) 

1S( + 1 ) 
111+ 
20 
19 



Total. 



46 

46(7) 

46(?) 

46 

43+ 

46 

46 

49 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ — TRUE. 37 

In the figures of the Argentine specimen the last ten caudals are practically 
without characters, and it is perhaps allowable to question whether the terminal 
two or three were not added to make an even taper to the end of the column. If 
such be not the case, this specimen had more vertebrse than any other. 

CHARACTERS OF THE VERTEBRAE. 

Newport (male). — The seventh cervical vertebra presents a conical metapophysis, 
which on the first thoracic vertebra forms of a rather thick, long, declining process 
ending in a facet for the tubercle of the first rib. This metapophysis maintains 
nearly the same form as far as the sixth thoracic vertebra, but on the third thoracic 
a mammiliform process makes its appearance on the anterior margin near the tip, 
and becomes more prominent on each succeeding vertebra. On the seventh thoracic 
it becomes larger, thin, and upright, and widely separated from the articular facet 
for the tubercle of the rib. On the centrum of this vertebra lower down is a second 
much larger rugose articular facet. On the eighth thoracic vertebra the upper 
articular process disappears altogether and is replaced by a transverse process on a 
lower level, with a facet at the free end for the rib. On the ninth thoracic the trans- 
verse processes are larger and nearly straight. They are longer on the first lumbar 
and incline a little forward. Those of the succeeding vertebn^ are similar, but 
decrease graduallj^ in length, while somewhat increasing in breadth. Thej^ are last 
traceable on the ninth caudal. On the eighth caudal they are perforated by a 
foramen. 

All the vertebrfe from the first cervical backward have neural spines as far as 
and includhig the eleventh caudal. The spine on the first thoracic is rather short, 
narrow and pointed. These spines increase in height in succeeding vertebra as for 
as the sixth lumbar; at the same time the breadth increases antero-posteriorly and 
the tip becomes expanded. The spines are nearly equallj' high on all tlie succeed- 
ing lumbars, but begin to decrease on the caudals and disappear altogether on the 
eleventh caudal. 

The anterior zj^gapophyses and metajiophyses maintain a nearly constant 
position close to the top of the centra throughout the column, from the seventh 
thoracic backward, and are vertical, thin, and oblong, squared or rounded. They 
begin to decrease in size noticeably on the first caudal, and on the seventh caudal 
are mere swellings at the sides of the nearly horizontal plate from wliich tlie neural 
spine springs. They are traceable as far as the twelfth caudal. 

A ridge appears on the side of the neural arch near its base on the fifth caudal 
and is stronger and very marked on those following, to the ninth caudal. A ridge 
unites the anterior and posterior facets for the chevrons on the ninth and succeeding 
caudals. 

Barnegat City (female). — Unlike tlie Newport skeleton, there are no neural 
spines on the fifth, sixth, and seventh cervicals. The spine on the first thoracic 
vertebra is quite short and sharp, and on the second, third, and fourth thoracics also 
is rather pointed, though of increased length. There is no metapophysis on the 
seventh cervical. 



38 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

On the seventh thoracic the facet for the tubercle of the rib, instead of being 
very prominent, becomes inconspicuous. The metapophysis is flat and squared, 
and there is no lower facet on the side of the centrum. On the eighth thoracic the 
metapophysis is thin, squared, and vertical, and a well-formed transverse process 
appears on the side of the centrum. The transverse processes of the ninth thoracic 
are a little curved backward, and on the first lumbar and succeeding vertebrje bent 
forward. These processes are less tapering on all the lumbars than in the Newport 
skeleton. They disappear on the eighth caudal. None is perforated. 

The longest neural spine is on the sixth lumbar, and on all the lumbars both 
the anterior and posterior edges are somewhat convex. Hence their shape is rather 
different from those of the Newport skeleton, in which the anterior margins are 
somewhat concave. The tips of the spines are rather suddenly expanded. The 
spines of the caudals are rather more expanded at the tip and more inclined back- 
ward than in the Newport skeleton. They disappear on the eleventh caudal. 

The horizontal plate joining the metapophyses is noticeable on the fifth caudal. 
The ridge on the side of the neural arch is first noticeable on the fourth caudal and 
is verj' strong on the fifth, sixth, and seventh. The metapophyses are last traceable 
on the twelfth caudal. 

Gharleston (female, jr.). — This skeleton resembles the Newport one as regards 
the facets for the articulation of the tubercles of the ribs, except that the seventh 
thoracic resembles the sixtli and has no lower facet on the side of the centrum. The 
transverse processes of the ninth thoracic are rather strongly curved backward, 
while those on the last thoracic and first lumbar are nearly straight. On succeed- 
ing vertebras they are inclined forward. They are last traceable on the eighth or 
ninth caudal (vertebra 35 or 36). None is perforated by a foramen. 

Though the vertebrae are defective, there appear to have been no neural spines 
on the fourth to the seventh cervicals, inclusive. The spine on the first thoracic is 
short, and on the first to the fourth is jiointed. The spine disappears on the teiath 
caudal (vertebra 37). 

The metapophyses assume the vertical position on the eighth thoracic. The 
last of these processes is barely traceable on tlie tenth caudal (vertebra 37). The 
ridge on the side of the neural arch is well marked on the fifth to the ninth caudals, 
inclusive. On the seventh caudal (vertebra 34) the anterior and posterior facets 
for the chevrons are united on the right side, and on the eighth caudal and suc- 
ceeding vertebrae on both sides. 

CERVICAL VERTEBRA. 

Barnegat City (female). — The first four cervicals are united. The foramen 
above the anterior articular facets of the atlas is complete, and the edges of these 
facets are raised. The inferior lateral process is flat, broad, and strongly bent 
backward. 

Second cervical: Inferior lateral process nearly as long as that of the first 
cervical; broad, flat, ami bent backward parallel with the process of the first cervical. 
Superior lateral process short, strong, and flat. A large incomplete foramen between 
it and the inferior process. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ — TRUE. 39 

Third cervical: A short, conical inferior process, curved forward. 

Fourth cervical: Similar, but with smaller and shorter inferior process. Neural 
arch and spine complete; the latter fused with the preceding spines. Arch not 
reducing the size of the neural canal. 

Fifth cervical: Arch and spine broken. Arch nearly as broad as the anterior 
epiphysis of the centrum. Inferior lateral process short, straight, and directed 
obliquely outward. 

Sixth cervical: Spine broken. Arch complete, nearly as wide as the anterior 
epiphysis. Inferior lateral process short, thick, knobbed, and directed obliquely 
outward and a very little forward. The left longer. 

Seventh cervical: Spine obsolete. Arch complete, as wide as the anterior 
epiphysis. No superior lateral process or metapophysis. A thick articular facet 
for the head of the first rib on the middle of the side of the centrum. No inferior 
lateral process. 

Fused spines of the first to fourth cervicals bent backward; the mass broad 
antero-posteriorly and rounded at the tip. 

Newport (male). — First cervical with the foramen over the anterior articular 
facets incomplete, and the borders of the facets less raised. The facets also broader 
and more declined. Inferior lateral process thicker, somewhat tapering, and nearly 
transverse. 

Second cervical : Inferior lateral process much shorter than that of first cervical, 
about parallel with it, but with the ti|) bent forward. Superior lateral process sliort, 
thick, and bent backward; joined to the inferior process on the right side, inclosing 
an oval foramen. 

Third cervical: A short, straight, triangular superior process on the right side; 
that on the left short and blunt. Inferior lateral process long, thick, club-shaped, 
and curved backward. 

Fourth cervical: Inferior lateral process similar to the last in shape, but shorter, 
broad and flat, and only slightly curved backward. Neural arch and spine separate 
from those of the tliird cervical; the arch rather smaller than those preceding it, 
and reducing the size of the neural canal. 

Fused spines of the first to third cervicals nearly vertical, rather high, and 
obtusely pointed. 

Fifth cervical : Spine pointed and quite long. Arch complete. Inferior lateral 
process short, squared, flattened, and directed, outward oblicjuely. 

Sixth cervical : Spine about as long as on the fifth cervical. Arch much nar- 
rower than the anterior epiph3'sis. Inferior lateral process prominent, thick, 
somewhat compressed, and directed downward. 

Seventh cervical: Spine as high as the arch, obtusely pointed. Aixh complete, 
as wide as the anterior epiphysis. A strong conical superior lateral process, or 
metapophysis, on a broad base, directed forward. An articular raised facet on 
the side of the centrum, directed obliquely backward. No inferior lateral process. 

Charleston (female, jr.). — The first to fourth cervicals resemble those of the 
Newport skeleton, but the fourth entirely separate. All the lateral processes 
undeveloped, or broken off, except the right inferior lateral process of the atlas, 



40 BULLETIN 73, UNITKD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

wliich is like that of the Newport specimen. The anterior foramen of the atlas is 
incomplete, as in that specimen, and the spines of the conjoined vertebra? are 
vertical and pointed. (PI. 25, fig. 1.) 

Fifth cervical: Spine wanting. Arch complete. Inferior lateral process un- 
developed, or abraded. 

Sixth cervical: Spine and processes broken. Arch wide. 

Seventh cervical: Similar to that of tlie Newport skeleton, but the spine 
obsolete or broken. 

TUOR.VCIC VERTEBRA. 

Barnegat City (female). — First thoracic: Spine vertical, pointed, about as high 
as arch and centrum together. A moderately long process with articular facet 
for tubercle of rib on side of neural arch; facet elliptical and directed a little down- 
ward and forward. A smaller facet for head of second rib on posterior upper edge 
of centrum. 

Seventh thoracic: Metapophyses long, extending horizontally, straight supe- 
riorly. A small articular facet on the outer side near the base, directed dowoiward; 
strongest on right side. A very small facet on posterior upper edge of centrum, 
scarcely noticeable on right side. Neural spine rather narrow at tip; superior 
margin straight. 

Eighth thoracic: Metapophyses squared and thin. A distinct transverse 
process on side of centrum about half as broad as the centrum is long, and as long 
as centrum is broad; flattened, squared, and a little curved backward and upward. 
Articular facet for rib elliptical and directed oblicjuel^' backward. A broad, shallow 
groove across base of transverse process, the anterior edge of which is emarginate 
proximally. Neural spine as in seventli thoracic. 

Ninth thoracic: Metapophyses scjuared. Transverse process similar to that 
of eighth thoracic, but equal to centrum in length, little narrowed at base, and 
directed outward; anterior edge convex, posterior concave; articular facet occiqjy- 
ing the posterior half of the distal edge. A very shallow groove proximally. 

Newport (male). — First thoracic: Neural spine a little curved backward and 
rounded at tip; much higher than length of arch and centrum together. Articular 
facets as in Barnegat skeleton. 

Seventh thoracic: Metapophyses similar in shape to those of Barnegat skeleton 
but with a very distinct facet on side of arch, terminating a process about as long 
as the greatest diameter of the facet; surface of facet rugose. Below this process, 
on side of centrum, a very large, oval, sessile facet, reaching forward nearly to the 
anterior face of the centrum and upward to its superior edge. A very low, small 
swelling on the posterior superior edge of centrum, probably indicating the point 
of attachment of a cartilage connecting the head of the eighth rib. Neural spine 
expanded at free end, and superior margin rounded. 

Eighth thoracic: Metapophyses similar to those of Barnegat skeleton. A 
distinct transverse process nearly as broad as the length of the centrum, oblong or 
squared, flat, directed somewhat backward, but not upward. Articular facet for 
rib not occupying whole of free end and only slightly directed backward; anterior 
margin as in Barnegat skeleton. Neural spine similar to that of seventh thoracic. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TRUE. 41 

Xinth thoracic: Similar to tliat of Barnegat skeleton, but transverse process 
longer than centrum and directed a little downward, articular facet occuj^ying less 
than posterior half of free margin; proximal groove inconspicuous; anterior and 
posterior margins nearly straight. 

Cliarleston (female, jr.). — The centra of the thoracic, as well as the lumbar, 
vertebrae in this individual present inferior median keels, and more or less concave 
sides, which is not the case in the Barnegat and Newport skeletons. This can not 
be due to immaturity, as in a still 3'ounger individual, supposed to represent Ziphius 
grebnitzkii, the thoracic vertebrte are rounded below. The neural spines of the 
thoracic vertebrje are much less inclmcd backward in semijunctus than in the New- 
port and Barnegat skeletons, but this is doubtless connected with age, as the younger 
series of vertebra already mentioned exhibits the peculiarity in a more marked 
degree. A similar modification dependent upon age appears to affect Eyperoodon, 
as will be seen hy comparing Van Bencden and Gervais' figures in the Osteography, 
plate 18. 

First thoracic: Similar to that of Newport skeleton, but spine not higher than 
arch alone. (A little abraded at tip, but probably undeveloped.) 

Seventh thoracic: Metapophyses short (abraded), incompletely developed. A 
distinct facet on side of same on an elongated process, as in Newport skeleton, but 
no second larger one on side of centrum. No facet on superior margin of centrum 
either anteriorh' or posteriorly. 

Eighth thoracic: Transverse process similar to that of Barnegat skeleton, but 
anterior edge nearly straight ; process about one-half as broad as length of centrum. 
(Indications of immaturity.) 

LUMBAR VERTEBR.E. 

Barnegat City (female). — First lumbar: Similar to last thoracic, but transverse 
process expanded distally and slightly directed forward; a little longer than centrum; 
anterior and posterior edges emarginate proximally. 

Eleventh lumbar (last) : Centrum ver\' long. Neural arch and spine very high, 
more than twice length of centrum. Spme inclined backward much beyond pos- 
terior face of centrum; anterior margin straight, posterior convex, tip expanded. 
Transverse process a little more than one-half length of centrum, somewhat expanded 
at distal end and curved forward so that tip is about in line with anterior face of 
centrum. ^Metapophyses close to centrum and to each other, semihexagonal in out- 
line. A sharp median inferior ridge, and shallow posterior oblique channels on 
under side of centrum. 

Newport (male). — First lumbar: Similar to that of Barnegat skeleton, but 
transverse processes considerably longer than the centrum and not expanded at tip; 
anterior edge straight, posterior only slightly emarginate proximally. 

Tenth lumbar (last) : Centrum like that in Barnegat skeleton. Neural arch 
and spine only slightly higher than length of centrum. Transverse process oblong, 
free margin nearly transverse; process inclined forward so that tip is a little beyond 
anterior face of centrum. Metapophyses close to centrum, rounded in outline. 
Neural spine much inclined backward; anterior edge concave, posterior convex, 



42 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

tip expanded. A rounded inferior median ridge and very distinct oblique posterior 
channels on under side of centrum. 

Charleston (female, jr.).— First lumbar: Similar to that of Barnegat skeleton, 
but transverse process directed outward and scarcely or not at all forward; length 
of process equal to that of centrum; tip rounded (due to immaturity). 

Tenth lumbar (last): Centrum very long. Neural arch and spine a little less 
in height than length of centrum. Transverse process oblong, curved forward, more 
than one-half as long as centrum. Metapophyses similar to those of Newport skele- 
ton. Inferior median ridge very sharp; lateral channels rather indistinct. 

CAUDAL VERTEBRA. 

Barnegat City (female).— First caudal (vert. 28): Similar to last lumbar, but 
neural spine broader antero-posteriorly. Transverse process § length of centrum, 
inversely triangular, the tip much in advance of anterior face of centrum, free end 
somewhat rounded. Metapojihyses similar to those of last lumbar. No median 
inferior ridge, but two short processes bearing facets for chevrons posteriorly and a 
very slight indication of similar process anteriorly, but without facets. Posterior 
inferior oblique channels indistinct. 

Seventh caudal (vert. 34) : Centrum (exclusive of chevron processes) nearly as 
deep as long. Neural arch and spine only a little higher than length of centrum, 
very much inclined backward and expanded at distal end; free border of spine 
straight. Metapophyses close to centrum, united nearly to tips by a horizontal 
plate. A ridge extends backward from their tips nearly across the arch. Another 
very prominent I'idge traverses the centrum at the base of the arch. At the poste- 
rior end, a deep groove, convex forward, extends down the side of the centrum, mak- 
ing an emargination in the transverse process and proceeding thence down the lower 
side of centrum to its lower middle point, where it ends in a deep semicircular emar- 
gination between the anterior and posterior chevron facets. Transverse process a 
triangular stub, reaching nearly to the line of the anterior face of centrum. Chevron 
processes very large, and the median inferior surface of the centrum between them 
deeply grooved longitudinally. 

Tenth caudal (vert. 37) : Centrum as deep as long. Neural spine a low ridge, as 
long as the centrum, and extending beyond it posteriorly. No transverse processes. 
A foramen in side of centrum much above the middle and a similar one below. Close 
to the latter and below it another foramen pierces the ridge uniting the chevron 
processes, and appears below on side of longitudinal inferior median channel. 
Metapophyses small mammelliform processes on top of centrum. 

Eleventh caudal (vert. 38) : No processes. A very small neural spine. Pos- 
terior epiphysis strongly convex. 

Twelfth caudal (vert. 39) : A rounded mass without processes. 

Thirteenth caudal (vert. 40) : An oblong mass, with two grooves on each side, 
two widely separate foramina above and two closely approximated below, entering 
a common depression, with rounded projections on its borders. 

Fourteenth caudal (vert. 41): Similar to thirteenth caudal, but with a single 
lateral groove. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ — TRUE. 43 

Fifteenth caudal (vert. 42) : Similar to fourteenth caudal, but sides extend- 
ing upward and downward in a ridge. Inferior foramina nearly as far apart as 
superior and posterior epiphysis much smaller than anterior. 

Sixteenth caudal (vert. 43) : Similar to fifteenth caudal, but the disproportion 
of epiphyses greater and lateral ridges higher. Superior and inferior surfaces of 
centrum inclined. 

Seventeenth caudal (vert. 44) : Similar to preceding, but smaller. 

Eighteenth caudal (vert. 45) : Longer than high. Inferior ridge longer and 
larger than superior. Groove very large. Anterior face of centrum deeply con- 
cave, posterior fiat. Posterior epiphysis very much smaller than anterior. Foram- 
ina very small, practically obliterated on right side. 

Newport (male). — First caudal (vert. 27): Similar to last lumbar, but trans- 
verse process shorter, about two-thirds as long as centrum, oblong and but little 
constricted at base; distal margin nearly straight. The process does not extend 
forward quite to the line of the anterior face of centrum. No inferior median ridge, 
but strong posterior chevron processes. Postero-inferior oblique grooves very 
distinct. 

Seventh caudal (vert. 33) : Similar to the same vertebra in Barnegat skeleton, 
but neural spine more inclined backward and anterior border deeply concave. 
Metapophyses oblong, directed upward, not reaching anterior face of centrum as 
they do in Barnegat skeleton. Anterior face of centrum receding superiorly and the 
ridge opposite it on side of centrum shorter than in Barnegat skeleton. Ridge 
behind metapophyses indistinct. Postero-inferior oblique grooves as in Barnegat 
skeleton, but piercing transverse process, forming a foramen. Anterior and posterior 
chevron processes very large and receding very much, as do also the anterior and 
posterior faces of centrums. 

Eleventh caudal (vert. 37) : Similar to Barnegat skeleton, but spine shorter 
than centrum and not extending beyond it anteriorly or posteriorly. Metapo- 
physes similar, but wider apart. 

Twelfth caudal (vert. 38) : Neural arch barely complete. No spine. 

Thirteenth to nineteenth caudals (vert. 39-45) : Similar to those of Barnegat 
skeleton. 

Twentieth caudal (vert. 4G) : Rudeh' triangular, with a peg-like posterior pro- 
jection, bearing the very small posterior epiphysis. No foramina. Anterior epi- 
physis deeply concave in middle. 

Charleston (female, jr.). — First caudal (vert. 28): Similar to last lumbar, but 
only a faint inferior median i-idge. Inferior outline of centrum antero-posteriorly 
very concave, which is not the case in the Barnegat and Newport skeletons. Pos- 
terior chevron processes prominent. Postero-inferior oblique grooves shallow. 

Seventli caudal (vert. 34) : Like the Newport skeleton. The transverse process 
not pierced or emarginate. Postero-inferior oblique grooves indistinct. Ridges on 
centrum very distinct. Right anterior and posterior chevron processes united and 
pierced by a foramen. 

Tenth caudal (vert. 37) : Similar to tlie same vertebra in Newport skeleton, but 
neural spine very short. 

24765— Bull. 73— 10 4 



44 



BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
CHEVRONS. 

The number of clievrons in the North American and some other specimens is 
as follows : 





11 

8 (+3?) 

8+ 

11 

9 


Littleton Harbor, New Zealand (Haast). 
Warrington, New Zealand {Scott and 
Parker). 


10 

9 

9 




Ohflrlp<!ton South Carolina 


Buenos Ayres, Argentina (Burmeister) . . . 







The chevrons are similar in form in the three North American specimens, 
with some difl'ercnces which will be pointed out below. 

Newport (male). — The first chevron consists of a pair of bones which are not 
united. They are longer than deep, their depth indeed being less tlian that of 
any one of the succeeding bones except the tenth and eleventh. Each pre- 
sents one strong superior articulating facet. Second chevron, elongated antero- 
posteriorly, but not much deeper than the first. Tliird chevron very deep and 
only ecjualed in that respect by the fourth ; narrowed and rounded off below. Fourth 
chevron largest and broadest (antero-posteriorly) of the series; expanded below 
and the lower border transverse. Fifth to eighth similar in form, but less deep 
successively, and the lower border more rounded. Ninth similar to eighth, but 
smaller and thinner. Tenth similar to first, longer (antero-posteriorly) than deep. 
Eleventh similar to tenth in form, but smaller. 

Barnegat City (female). — First chevron bone lacking. Second like that of 
Newport skeleton, but smaller. Third similar to second, but much larger and 
more produced posteriorly ; quite unlike the third in the Newport skeleton in form, 
and much less deep. Fourth, largest and deepest of the series; anterior and pos- 
terior borders rounded, and the inferior border similar. Fifth to eighth similar in 
form, but successively less deep, and all more expanded below; inferior border 
nearly straight. Ninth similar to eighth, but depth not exceeding breadth; lower 
angles produced. 

Charleston (female, jr.). — The chevrons of this specimen resemble those of the 
Newport skeleton, but on account of immaturity they are all more or less rounded. 
The two sides of the first chevron are united. The second is vidthout the posterior 
angular projection seen in the other specimens. The third is the deepest of the 
series. The eighth is not deeper than long, and hence resembles the tenth chevron 
of the Newport skeleton in proportion, but is, of course, much smaller. Two or 
three chevrons are lacking from the posterior end of the series. 

RIBS. 

Barnegat City (female). — First rib shortest and broadest, but considerably 
broader at proximal end than at distal end. Head and tubercle close together. 
The succeeding ribs increase in length and decrease in breadth to the fifth or sixth. 
The third, fourth, and fifth are expanded and flattened at distal end. Seventh, 
eighth, and ninth successively shorter. Distance between head and tubercle 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TRUE. 45 

greater on second rib than on first, and on third is greater than on second. On 
the third to sixth, inclusive, the distance is about equal. The tubercle is scarcely 
distinguishable on the seventh rib, while on the eighth and ninth it is lacking, 
these ribs joining the transverse processes by a terminal facet only. 

Newport (male). — Similar to those of the Barnegat skeleton, but first rib 
maintains nearly the same breadth throughout. Neck thicker than in Barnegat 
skeleton. Seventh rib terminates proximally in a single large rugose facet, which 
connects with a similar facet on side of centrum of seventh thoracic vertebra. 

Charleston (female, jr.). — Similar to those of the Barnegat skeleton, but a 
distinct tubercle on the seventh rib. Eighth and ninth ribs end proximally in a 
transverse facet only, wliich is largest on the eighth. Tenth rib (represented by 
a fragment) only half as broad as the preceding ones and more nearly- round in 
section. 

STERNUM. 

Barnegat City (female). — Five segments. Manubrium wider than long, con- 
vex inferiorly. Deep anterior and posterior notches, about equal, the former with 
an angular projection on each side. Facet for cartilaginous sternal rib thick and 
prominent. Second segment wider than long, about equally notched anteriorly 
and posteriorly, the two sides anchylosed together by a bony bridge, about as wide 
as the notches are deep. Third and fourth segments similar to second but smaller; 
similarly notched; left portion a little longer than right. Fifth segment elongated, 
left side very much so; the two sides joined by a narrow bridge; posterior notch 
very deep. 

Neioport (male). — Similar to sternum of Barnegat skeleton, Ijut manubrium 
scarcel}^ wider than long; posterior notch much longer than anterior, with parallel 
sides. Second and third segments similar to those of Barnegat skeleton but sides 
of latter not completely anchylosed together. Fourth segment in two pieces, with 
a wide interval between. Fifth segment triangular with deep anterior, triangular 
notch, a narrow bridge, and short posterior prolongation (the left longer than the 
right). 

Charleston (female, jr.). — Resembles the sternum of the Barnegat skeleton rather 
than that of Newport skeleton, but anterior parts cartilaginous. Opposite sides of 
second, third, and fifth segments anchylosed together and those of fourth segment 
nearly so. (PI. 25, fig. 2). 

SCAPULA. 

Barnegat City (female). — Superior border irregular. Posterior angle acute. 
Anterior and posterior borders nearly ' straight. Ridges ilistinct. Acromion 
broad both at base and at tip, sharply bent upward, so as to be parallel with an- 
terior border of scapula. Coracoid nearly as long as acromion, slender, a little curved 
upward, irregular and somewhat exy)anded at the end. 

Newport (male). — Siqjerior border irregularly roimded. Posterior angle ob- 
tuse, anterior angle projecting. Ridges indistinct. Anterior and posterior bor- 
ders nearly straight, but irregular. Acromion broad at base, tapering toward the 



46 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

tip, which is again somewhat expanded; bent upward, but not sufficiently to be 
parallel \vdth anterior margin of blade. Coracoid rather thick, irregular, strongly 

expanded at tip. 

Charhdon (female, jr.).— Rather too much abraded for comparisons, but pos- 
terior margin more concave than in either of the other skeletons. 

FORE LIMB. 

Bamegat City (female) .—Fore limb much shorter than in the Newport skeleton. 
Humerus: Head quite oblique, the lower edge overhanging the shaft considerably 
on the ulnar side. Tuberosity level with upper surface of head, elliptical in outline 
when viewed from above. Deltoid ridge moderately prominent, irregular, rugose, 
and extending to about the middle of the shaft. Distal end of humerus not ex- 
panded. Bicipital groove inconspicuous. 

Radius: Almost perfectly straight, but a little inclined toward ulna at oblique 
proximal end; scarcely expanded at distal end, which is lower externally than 
intenially. 

Ulna: Much slenderer than radius, rounded triangular in section, not expanded 
at distal end, where the margin is lowest externally. Olecranon well developed, 
thin, and pointed proximally. 

Carpals: Five; two on ulna side, two median and one on radial side in line with 
first metacarpal. The proximal middle bone (intermedium) extends much farther 
proximally than those on each side of it. 

Metacarpals: Metacarpal III longest, metacarpal II broadest. Metacarpal I 
oblong, or rather conical, with a lateral enlargement, and situated in line with the 
distal row of carpals. 

Digits : First phalange of first digit short and conical. 

Newport (male). — Fore limb considerably longer and more massive than that 
of the Bamegat skeleton but similar otherwise, except as follows: 

Humerus: Head rather larger and less inclined. Deltoid ridge more prominent. 

Radius: Broader proximally and rounded at distal end, where it extends out- 
ward beyond the carpal bones. 

Ulna: Thicker, and olecranon less pointed. 

Carpal bones: Middle carpal bone not extending farther proximally than those 
on either side of it. 

Metacarpals: Metacarpal I nearly square, third longest, second to fourth more 
constricted. 

Digits: First phalange of first digit long and cylindrical. Phalangeal formula: 
I, 1; II, 6; 111,6; IV, 4; V, 2. 

Measurements of the skeletons above described are as follows: 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID.E — TRUE. 
Dimensions of four skeletons of Ziphius caviroslris. 



47 



Measurements. 



Barnepat 

City. New 

Jersey. 

20971 

U.S N.M. 

fi'male. 

adult. 


Newport, 
Rhode 
Island. 
49599 
U.S.N.M. 
male, 
adult. 


Charleston 

South 
Carolina. 

21975 

U.S.N.M. 

female, 

young. 


Bering 

Island. 

(Vertebrae) 

young. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


945 


915 


797 




81 


79 


66 


65 


283 


259 


210(?) 


146 


215 


218 


170 


148 


211 


220 


174(7) 


122 


267 


321 


163 


133 


42 


46 


32 


19 


70 


67 


48 


49 


142 


158 


147 


128 


440 


417 


260 


182 


102 


103 


74 


61 


68 


69 


49 


44 


253 


288 


177 


100 


447 


427 


265 


186 


110 


109 


78 


64 


65 


69 


61 


47 


329 


366 


248(7) 


122 


418 


431 


277 


192 


117 


117 


82 


58 


69 


75 


53 


49 


385 


393 


1'275 


142 


464 


451 


1'293 


200 


122 


120 


6 89 


62 


74 


81 


6 65 


60 


362 


335 


<230 


158 


524 


4SS 


c343 


242 


172 


162 


tl29 


85 


107 


109 


C78 


71 


336(?) 


■1313 


223 


166 


483 


<'458 


307 


235 


178 


"1160 


127 


91 


113 


"1109 


81 


75 


164 


' 161 


113 


110 


/ 255 


/250 


155 


/135 


139 


131 


103 


77 


/ 111 


/119 


/S5 


/78 



Length of skull.. 



First to fourth cervicals (vert. 1-4): 

Length of combined centra .-. . 

Greatest breadth of atlas 

Greatest height of atlas 

First thoracic vertebra (vert. 8): 

Greatest breadth 

Greatest height « 

Length of centrum 

Height of centrum 

Seventh thoracic vertebra (vert. 14): 

Greatest breadth 

Greatest height 

Length of centrum 

Height of centrum (ant.) 

Eighth thoracic vertebra (vert. 15): 

Greatest breadth 

Greatest height 

Length of centrum 

Height of centrum 

Ninth thoracic vertebra (vert. 16): 

Greatest breadth 

Greatest height 

Length of centrum 

Height of centrum 

First lumbar vertebra (vert. 17): 

Greatest breadth 

Greatest height 

Length of centrum 

Height of centrum 

Tenth lumbar vertebra (vert. 26): 

Greatest breadth 

Greatest height 

Length of centrum 

Height of centrum 

First caudal vertebra (vert. 27): 

Greatest breadth , 

Greatest height , 

Length of centrum , 

Height of centrum , 

Seventh caudal vertebra (vert. 33): 

Greatest breadth , 

Greatest height , 

Length of centrum , 

Height of centrum (ant.) 



a The measurements of height of vertebrse are from center of Inf. margin of centrum to center of tip of 
spine, unless otherwise specified. 
6 Last thoracic. 
« Ninth lumbar. 
d Second caudal=vert. 28. 
e Eighth caudal— vert. 34. 
/ Without chevron facet. 



48 



BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
Dimensions of four shcletons of Ziphius cavirostris — Continued. 



Measurements. 



Twelfth caudal vertebra (vert. 38): 

Greatest breadth 

Greatest height 

Length of centrum 

Fifteenth caudal vertebra (vert. 41): 

Greatest breadth 

Greatest height 

Length of centrum 

Eighteenth caudal vertebra (vert. 45): 

Greatest breadth 

Greatest height 

Length of centrum 

Twentieth caudal vertebra (vert. 46): 

Greatest breadth 

G reatest height 

Length of centrum 

Chevrons: 

Antero-posterior length of first chevron.. 
Depth of same 

Length of second chevron 

Depth of same 

Length of third chevron 

Depth of same 

Length of fourth chevron 

Depth of same 

Length of eighth chevron 

Depth of same 

Length of ninth chevron 

Depth of same 

Scapula: 

Greatest length 

Greatest height 

Length of acromion 

Length of coracoid from edge of glenoid. 
Pectoral limb: 

Total length 

Humerus: 

Length 

Breadth at distal end 

Radius: 

Length 

Breadth at distal end 

Ulna: 

Length without olecranon 

Length Including olecranon 

Breadth at distal end 



Bamegat 

City, New 

Jersey. 

20971 

U.S.N.M. 

female, 

adult. 



83 
87 
114 
135 
125 
213 
80 
108 
84 
83 

385 
275 

/n5 

127 

588 

168 
69 

em 

55 

165 

220 

44 



Newport, 
Rhode 
Island. 
49599 
U.S.N.M. 
male, 
adult. 



78 
"56 

6 62 
i'52 
6 39 

c38 
<-19 
C22 

d25 
dl3 
iil9 

74 
66 
107 
85 
91 
206 
122 
206 
86 
115 
74 



415 
300 
159 
148 



177 
69 



171 

225 
42 



Charleston, 

South 
Carolina, 

21975 

U.S.N.M. 

female, 

young. 



44 
55 
74 
61 

123 
67 

111 
43 
41 



e224 
175 



130 
52 

S135 
41 

118 
150 
30 



Bering 

Island. 

(Vertebra) 

young. 



62 
61 
47 

45 
30 
28 



38 
63 
46 
90 
51 
67 
35 
33 
27 
19 

159 
132 

48 
38 



95 
42 



u Thirteenth caudal— vert. 39. 
b Si.\teenth cau(lal=vert. 42. 
c Nineteenth caudal— vert. 45. 
d Vert. 40. 



' Edges abraded. 
/ A little broken. 
e In median line. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TRUE. 

Dimensions of four skeletons of Ziphius caDiros«m— Continued. 



49 



Measurementa. 



Metacarpals: 

Length of first 

Length of second 

Length of third 

Length of fourth 

Length of fifth 

Phalanges: 

Length of first phalange of first digit . 
Sternum: 

Total length 

Length of manubrium 

Breadth of manubrium 

Length of fifth segment 

Breadth of filth segment 

Ribs: 

Length of first rib (straight) 

Breadth of first rib at proxunal end. . 

Breadth of first rib at distal end 

Length of fifth rib (straight) 

Length of ninth rib (straight) 



Bamegat 
City, New 

Jersey. 

20971 
U.S.N.M. 

female, 

adult. 



a 803 
259 
286 

C170 
133 

405 
88 
63 
785 
620 



Newport 
Rhode 
Island. 
49.599 

U.S.N.M. 
male, 
adult. 



821 
306 
333 
C184 
168 

410 
110 
80 
770 
620 



Charleston, 

South 

Carolina. 

21975 

U.S.N.M. 

female, 

young. 



Bering 

Island. 

(Vertebrae) 

young. 



6 550 

6 203 

193 

l>128 



277 
65 
40 

545 



1395 
105 
128 
c92 

82 

191 
46 
30 

415 



a Without cartilages. 



c Left side. 



b With cartilages. 
PHALANGEAL FORMULA. 

The formulas for the ossified phalanges m two American ° and tliree Old World 
specimens are as follows : 

Phalangeal formula of five apedmens of Ziphius cavirostris. 



Locality. 



Newport, Rhode Island 

BarnegatCity, New Jersey 

Villefranche , France ( Haeckel) 

Pisa Museum, Italy (Van Beneden) 

Warrington, New Zealand (Scott and Parker) 



II. 



5 

3(?) 

5 



in. 



IV. 



SUMMARY OF DIFFERENCES IN SKELETONS. 

The chief differences between the Bamegat City and Newport skeletons are in 
the size and form of the processes of the cervical vertebra, the form of the seventh 
and eio-hth thoracic vertebra and of the ribs connected with them, the direction of 
the acromion of the scapula, the shape of the first phalange of the first digit, and 
of the posterior segments of the sternum. As far as the processes of the cerviails 
are concerned, these are known to be extreme ly variable in all cet aceans. The 
a The Buenos Ayres spectaen is not included here, as I am uncertain as to its proper interpretation. 



50 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

seventh and eighth thoracic vertebrae are those on which the mode of attachment 
of the ribs changes in ziphioid whales, and I have observed in the genus Mesoplodon, 
as here, that the processes and articular facets were very variable, being sometimes 
' quite unlike on the two sides of the same vertebra. The direction of the acromion 
is probably subject to large individual variations, though this can not be deter- 
mined at present, and the same is true of the form of the first phalange of the first 
digit. The form of the sternum is quite variable in all cetaceans, and can not be 
relied on for specific characters, without comparison of many individuals. 

On the whole, I am of the ophiion, as already stated, that we are not compelled 
by the differences noted to regard the Barnegat and Newport skeletons as repre- 
senting different species. The Charleston skeleton is too young and imperfect to 
admit of serious consideration. The idea that the differences between the adult 
skeletons are probably individual receives support from the fact that the skeleton 
shown in the photograph from St. Simon Island, Georgia, mentioned on page 31, 
No. 14, appears to possess a combination of characters exhibited by the other two. 

AGE VARIATIONS IN SKULLS. 

The series of skulls of Z. grehnitzkii, which the Museum owes to the activities 
of Dr. L. Stejneger and Mr. N. Grebnitzki, comprises specimens of different ages, 
and, as will be shown presently, probably both sexes. Taken together with the 
skulls from the east coast of the United States they probably represent very fully 
the variations which the skull undergoes in the present species. These changes 
may, perhaps, be best made evident by the following brief descriptions of the 
various skulls : 

21975. Charleston, South Carolina. — Young female. (Type of Z. semi functus.) 
All sutures open, and elements of occipital bone distinguishable. No meseth- 
moid ossification. Opposite maxillary notches, premaxillte closely approximated, 
nearly flat and horizontal, and about level with adjacent parts of maxillae. Left 
premaxilla grooved longitudinally at this point. Orifice of anterior nares on a 
level with lower end of rectangular projecting boss formed by superior portion of 
nasals. Kostrum pointed, much broader distally than it is deep. A very distinct 
rudimentary alveolar groove in distal end of each maxilla. Proximal end of vomer 
resting against anterior face of nasals and reaching up to overhanging boss. Anterior 
face of the latter nearly flat. (PI. 14, fig. 1 ; pi. 18, fig. 1 ; pi. 20, fig. 1 ; pi. 21, fig. 2.) 

Rami of mandible not anchylosed together at symphysis. Teeth hollow, 
open at the root, gcute at apex, tipped with enamel; diameter 10 mm (PI 22, 
fig. l;pl. 24, fig. 1.) 

30971. Barnegat City, New Jersey.— Adu\t female. Majority of sutures open, 
but those on superior surface of rostrum between maxillas and premaxilla partly 
anchylosed. Vomer nearly all anchylosed to rostral portion of premaxilla? ; it 
presents a slight median elevation, but there is no mesirostral ossification. Right 
premaxilla in front of nares broad, flat, and horizontal; left, nearly so, but with a 
quite broad longitudinal groove. Opposite maxillary notches premaxillse nearly 
on a level with adjacent parts. Orifice of anterior nares level with lower end of 
nasal boss. End of rostrum quite acute, and broader than deep. Rudimentary 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TEUE. 51 

alveolar groove distinct distally. Proximal end of vomer anchylosed with anterior 
face of nasals and reaching up to nasal boss, which has a sharp median ridge com- 
pleting nasal septum superiorly. Anterior face of nasal boss slightly concave on 
each side of median line. (PI. 14, fig. 2; pi. IS, fig. 2; pi. 20, fig. 2; pi. 21, fig. .3.) 

Rami of mandible anchylosed together at symphysis and suture largely obliter- 
ated. Teeth slender, cylindrical, rugose, rather blunt; roots closed; diameter 13 
mm. (PI. 24, fig. 3.) 

22069. Bering /sZaTwZ.— Adult female ? All the sutures about as in preceding 
specimen. Mesirostral ossification distinct, rounded, extending from base of rostrum 
nearly to apex, but disappearing before reaching line of anterior ends of maxillag. 
Its upper surface below that of premaxillse. Premaxillas approximated, and right 
premaxilla with an angular process near base of rostrum overlapping mesirostral 
ossification. Premaxillfe at base of rostrum, anterior nares, proximal end of vomer, 
and nasals as in preceding skull. Apex of rostrum moderately acute, broader than 
deep. Rudimentary alveolar groove shallow. (PI. 15, fig. 1.) 

Rami of mandible anchylosed together and suture largely obliterated. Teeth 
somewhat fusiform, blunt; roots closed; diameter, 14 mm. (PI. 22, fig. 3.) 

83991. Benng Island. — Similar in all respects to preceding, but mesirostral 
ossification a little less well developed. 

22874. Bering Island. — Entirely similar to two preceding, but premaxillae a 
little curved out from mesirostral ossification and left premaxilla opposite maxillary 
notch rather strongly inclined, nearly vertical. Anterior face of nasal boss dis- 
tinctly concave. (Skull defective.) 

21246. Bering Island. — Sutures as in three preceding skulls, ilesirostral 
ossification distinct and rounded, but much below level of premaxOlffi. Rostral 
portion of premaxillsB narrow and widely divergent toward base of rostrum, leaving 
mesirostral entirely exposed. Right premaxilla on a line with maxillary notches 
strongly concave and sunk below level of maxillae. Left premaxilla vertical, with 
a broad groove. Right premaxilla remains low and concave proximally, the pos- 
terior end being then abruptly turned upward and reaching level of vertex. Orifice 
of anterior nares on a level with lower end of nasal boss, and vomer resting against 
anterior face of nasals, which latter have a median ridge continuing nasal septum, 
but with a slight vacuity between the two. Rudimentary alveolar groove nearly 
obliterated. Outer sides of premaxillte at distal end strongly concave. Rostrum 
rather acute, about as deep as wide opposite distal ends of maxilla;. (PI. 15, fig. 2.) 
20993. Bering Island.— Adult male? (Type of Z. grebnitzkii) . Majority of 
sutures open, but maxilla; and premaxilla; anchylosed together above and on the 
sides. Premaxilla; approximated anteriorly, but diverging posteriorly. Mesirostral 
ossification well developed, reaching level of premaxill;?; anteriorly rather narrow 
but a Uttle broader near middle of rostrum, where it is beveled off abruptly. Behind 
this point premaxilla; strongly concave, nearly vertical and widely separated, form- 
ing a large and deep basin, in the bottom of which the vomer appears as a broad, 
irregular bony surface. Bottom of basin much below level of surrounding parts. 
Orifice of anterior nares much below level of nasal boss. Vomer reaching lower end 
of nasals. Anterior face of latter strongly concave, with only a moderate median 



52 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ridge completing nasal septum above. Mesirostral with a median groove at distal 
end. Preniaxili:i> high at distal end, but sides nearly plane. Kostrum compressed 
near apex, deeper than ^^-ido. (PI. 16, fig. 1 ; pi. 19, fig. 1 ; pi. 20, fig. 3.) 

Rami of mandible anchylosed together and suture partly obhterated. Teeth 
conical, with rather short, acute tips; roots closed, short and conical; diameter, 
25 mm. (PI. 23, fig. 1; pi. 24, fig. 2.) 

21245. Bering Island. — Nearly all sutures between maxillie and premaxillae at 
end of rostrum, above and below, anchylosed together, but majority of others trace- 
able. Condition of superior surface of skull very sinrilar to that of preceding, but 
premaxillae rather low at distal end. ]\Iesirostral at distal end rather lower than 
premaxillffi and concave superiorly; more posteriorly assuming form of a narrow 
ridge, with a deep channel between it and premaxillie on each side. More posteriorly 
still it widens rapidly, with a convex surface, and terminates abruptly with a trun- 
cated end, the surface of which is concave. A deep basin around nares, as in pre- 
ceding skull. Orifice of anterior nares far below level of nasal boss. The latter 
largely absorbed and deeply undercut and concave in front. Nasal septum termi- 
nating before reacliing lower end of nasals, and ridge on latter low and traversing 
left nasal. Sides of premaxilla; at distal end very concave. Rudimentary alveolar 
groove nearly obsolete. Rostrum blunt at apex, and about as deep as wide at 
anterior ends of maxillte. (PI. 16, fig. 2.) 

2124s. Bering Island. — Similar to preceding, but mesirostral ossification liigher 
than premaxillie at distal entl and convex above; less abruptly widened posteriorly 
and posterior termination flat. Narrow, deep grooves between ossification and 
premaxillje on each side, or, in other words, premaxilhi? more closely approximated 
to sides of mesirostral distally. Basin around nares and conformation of the several 
bones bordering it similar to preceding. Sides of premaxillae concave at distal end, the 
grooves thusformed in them intruding somewhat on the maxillae, especially posteriorly. 
Apex of rostrum very blunt, rounded off below and projecting above; deeper than 
wide. Rudimentary alveolar groove nearly obsolete. (PI. 17, fig. 1 ; pi. 22, fig. 4.) 

Rami of mandible anchylosed together and the symphysis and suture largely 
obhterated. Teeth very broadly fusiform; tip short and rather blunt; roots closed; 
diameter 30 mm. 

49599. Newport, Rhode Islan/J. — Adult male. All sutures on superior sur- 
face of skull more or less anchylosed together. Mesirostral ossification and pre- 
maxillae all on one level near apex of rostrum, but at extreme tip mesirostral lower, 
forming a narrow ridge with a deep groove on each side between it and premax- 
illie. The same conformation repeated more posteriorly, but grooves deeper and 
wider, while mesirostral maintains the same level as premaxillae. It \\ddens sud- 
denly here, forming a broad flat-topped mass, wliich is a Httle overlappetl by the 
premaxillie. The mass terminates suddenly somewhat behind middle of rostrum 
with a deep concavity placed obhquely. Basin in front of the nares and conforma- 
tion of bones composing it as in two preceding skulls. Vomer at proximal end 
toucliing lower end of nasals, and nasal septum continued behind and above it as 
a low ridge, composed of the inner edges of the two nasal bones and reaching up to 
the nasal boss. Outer sides of premaxillae near distal end deeply concave. Apex of 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TRUE. 



53 



rostrum rather blunt, deeper than wide opposite distal ends of maxillae; all the bones 
anchylosed together, but some of the sutures indicated by grooves. Rudimentary 
alveolar groove nearly obsolete. (PI. 17, fig. 2; pi. 19, fig. 2; pi. 21, figs. 1, 5.) 

Rami of mandible anchylosed together at symphysis, the suture indicated 
only by a groove. Teeth large, broadly conical and tapering at the tip. Root 
very short, rugose, conical and closed; diameter 29 mm. (PI. 22, fig. 2; pi. 23, 
figs. 2, 3.) 

The dimensions of the several skulls are as follows: 

Dimensions of ten skulls of Ziphius cavirostris {including the types of Z. grehnitzkii Ctejneger and 

Z. semijunctus Cope). 



Measurements. 



Totallength 

Length of rostrum 

Height from vertex to inferior 

border of pterygoids 

Distance from tip of rostrum 

to posterior free margin of 

pterygoids (median) 

Distance from the same to an- 
terior end of nasals 

Breadth between centers of 

orbits 

Breadth between zygomatic 

processes 

Breadth between temporal 

fossBP. 

Breadth of rostrum at base — 
Breadth of rostrum at middle. 
Breadth of premaxillae at 

same point 

Depth of rostrum at middle 

Breadth of premaxillae in 

front of nares 

Greatest breadth of anterior 

nares ' 

Greatest length of temporal 

fossa 

Greatest depth of temporal 

fossa 

Length of orbit (ant.-post.) 

Distance from anterior end of 

orbit to maxillary notch 

Length of tympanic bulla 

Breadth of tympanic bulla 

Length of mandible 

Length of symphysis 

Depth of mandible at coronoid 



83991. 

Ber- 
ing Is- 
land. 

greb- 
niUkii. 



900 
491 



617 

495 

511 

270 
319 
102 

54 
66 

176 

74 

161 

81 
131 



21248. 

Ber- 
ing Is- 
land. 
grely- 
nitzkii. 



22874. 

Ber- 
ing Is- 
land. 
greb- 
niuiii. 



mm. 
877 
480 



670 

621 

513 

513 

309 
331 
117 

67 
81 



73 
133 



769 
170 
153 



21246. 

Ber- 
ing Is- 
land. 
greb- 
nitzkii. 



20993. 

Ber- 
ing Is- 
land. 
Type 
greb- 
nitzkii. 



Ttlrfl. 
«397 



"538 
i>499 



325 
345 
1>94± 

58 
80 



77 
132 



771771. 

850 
470 



600 

488 

505 

300 
324 
107 



205 

90 

149 

79 
1.30 

70 



771771. 
963 

550 



735 

690 

563 

573 

349 
380 
120 

78 

lis 

221 

98 

1.52 

87 
137 

S3 
53 
24 



22069. 

Ber- 
ing Is- 
land. 
grfb- 
nitzkii. 



21245. 

Ber- 
ing Is- 
land. 
greb- 
nitzkii. 



771771. 
882 

480 



682 

623 

li486 

531 

317 
337 
109 

70 
117 

230 

103 

140 

74 
126 



771771. 

855 
476 

4S1 



673 

589 

492 

530 

311 
320 
112 

75 
113 

219 

108 

146 

89 
117 

85 



Type 

semi- 

junc- 

tui. 



771771. 

797 
463 

349 



614 

590 

393 

415 

242 

249 

83 

44 

50 

128 

70 

1.33 

67 
113 

61 
54 
37? 
679 
149 
133 



20971. 
Bame- 

gat, 

N.J. 

Fe- 
male, 

cavi- 
rostrii. 



771771. 

945 
550 



735 

708 

476 

503 

302 
307 
112 

62 

77 

176 

76 

143 

80 
134 



49599. 
New- 

Male, 

cavi' 

rostTU. 



771771. 

915 
514 



726 



530 

548 

313 
337 
113 

80 
107 

234 

112 

155 

76 
132 

99 
55 
25 
842 
176 
153 



o About 150 mm. lacking from end of beak. 

li A little abraded. ,„ , , . . 

c Taken on a level with the curve of the itmer margin of the premaillte. Is only approximate. 



54 BULLETIN 13, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

SEX CHARACTERS. 

It will be found from an examination of the foregoing descriptions that in those 
specimens in which the sex is known to be female, or is marked as such, the pre- 
maxilljT are comparatively narrow, the mesirostral ossification only slightly devel- 
oped, the prenarial basin undeveloped, and the teeth quite slender, with a diameter 
of from 10 to 14 mm. As the teeth in some of them have closed roots there can be 
no doubt that they arc adults. On the other hand, those skulls known or believed 
to be from adult males have the mesirostral ossification enormously developed, 
a deep prenarial basin, and fusiform teeth with closed roots and a diameter of from 
25 to 30 mm. It appears to be a fact, therefore, that in the females the mesirostral 
ossification is never greatly developed at any age, that the teeth are never thick and 
fusiform, and that the prenarial region is never deeply concave. Immature indi- 
viduals present, of course, the appearance of the females, except that the teeth 
are open at the root and that the mesirostral ossification is not developed at all. 
Conversely, the females, broadly speaking, always present characters of immaturity, 
but in adults the roots of the teeth are, of course, closed. 

That these conclusions are correct is borne out by an examination of descrip- 
tions and figures of specimens from other parts of the world, for which purpose 
a few are available in the writings of New Zealand zoologists and others. Hector, 
for example, in 1873,° published a description and figures of a skull from the Chat- 
ham Islands which had a large mesirostral ossification, deep prenarial concavity, 
and large, thick teeth, having a diameter of 34 mm. This is the same combination 
of characters found in the Newport specimen, which is known to be a male, and the 
Bering Island skulls supposed to be those of males.* 

In 1876,'^ Haast figured and described a female 26 feet long, and hence pre- 
sumably adult, from Lyttleton Harbor, New Zealand, which had a small develop- 
ment only of the mesirostral ossification, a slight prenarial depression, and rather 
slender teeth with closed roots and a diameter of 19 mm. This combination of 
characters is found in the Barnegat skull, also known to be an adult female. 

In the same paper Haast describes <^ and figures the skull of another female 
from Akaroa Harbor, New Zealand. This individual was larger than the last and 
was accompanied by a suckling calf. Hence, there can be no doubt that it was 
mature. The skull shows a moderate development of the mesirostral ossification, 
and slender cylindrical teeth with closed roots and a diameter of 16 mm. 

It is demonstrated from the foregoing discussion, I think, that the sexes can be 
distinguished by the skulls, when adult, or by the teeth alone. 

Reverting now to ZipJiius gervaisii, which was mentioned on p. 30 as perhaps 
constituting a separate species, it will be seen by examining the figures given by 

o Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 5, 1873, p. 164, pis. 4-5. 

b Hector also figures a tooth from a specimen found at Manawatu beach in pi, 5, fig. 3, which is like 
those of the Chatham Island specimen in size and shape (diameter 34 mm.), and should belong to a male, 
but as he does not figure or describe the skull this can not be used in the present discussion. 

cTrans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 9, 1876, p. 430, pi. 24, figs. A and c; pi. 26, fig. 4. 

didem, p. 440, pi. 24, fig. b; pi. 26, fig. 3. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIICffi TRUE. 



65 



Gervais " of the skull on which it was based that the latter presents the combination 
of characters peculiar to the female of Z. cavirostris. This skull, which was from 
Aresquiers (Herault), France, was 888 mm. long, and hence, presumably, adult. 
The mesirostral ossification is but slightly developed, the prenarial concavity mod- 
erate, the teeth small, slender, and cylindrical, with closed roots and a diameter of 
14 mm. There seems to be no sufficient reason for regarding this skull as repre- 
senting a species distinct from cavirostris. 

The specimen from Buenos Ayres described and figured by Burmeister in 1868 * 
was an immature male. In the skull the mesirostral ossification was lacking, the 
premaxillse were flat, and the teeth conical and acuminate, with open roots, and a 
diameter of 12 mm. This individual was 12 feet llj inches (3.95 m.) long, and 
hence about as long as the Charleston specimen, but the skull was apparently 680 
mm. long, while that of the Charleston specimen .is 797 mm. long. In the latter 
the teeth are 45 mm. long and 10 mm. in diameter, while the tooth figured by Bur- 
meister is 31 mm. long and 12 mm. in diameter. From these data it appears 
improbable that the sex of immature individuals can be determined from the skull 
or teeth. 

TEETH. 

The teeth of the various North Atlantic and North Pacific specimens merit 
a somewhat more detailed description than is given on pages 50 to 53. Six pairs of 
teeth from six different individuals are available for comparison. Their dimensions 
are as follows: 

Dimensions of the teeth of Ziphius cavirostris. 



Cat. 
No. 



21975 
20971 
22069 
20993 
21248 
49599 



Locality. 



Charleston, South Carolinao 
Barnegat Cit.v, New Jersey. 

Bering Island 

....doi> 

....do 

Newport, Rhode Island 



Age. 


Sex. 


Teeth. 


Length. 


Greatest 
diameter. 


Young 
Adult. 
Adult. 
Adult. 
Adult. 
Adult. 


Female ... 
Female . . . 
(Female?) 
(Male?)... 
(Male?)... 
Male 


mm. 
45 
66 
41 
48 
58 
63 


mm. 
10 
13 
U 
25 
30 
29 



a Type of Z. semijunctus. 



6 Type of Z. grebnitzfcii. 



21975. Charleston, South Carolina. — Young female. (Type of Z. semijunctus.) 
The teeth are slender, conical, and acuminate, largest at the base and tipped for 
about 2 mm. with white enamel. The remainder of the teeth is coated with a thin 
layer of cement. The teeth in what appears to be their natural position protrude 
horizontally from the mandible for about 17 mm. They are slightly curved upward 
near the tip and are oval, or elliptical, in section, the transverse diameter being 
a Uttle less than the vertical diameter. They are a little flattened externally. 



aZooI. et Pal^ontol. fran?., 2d ed., 1859, p. 287, pi. 39, figs. 2-7. 
b Anal. Mu8. Pub. Buenos Aires, vol. 1, 1868, pp. 301-366, pis. 15-20. 



5G BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The surface is smootli. They arc open at the root, and hollow. (PI. 38, figs. 1,2; 
pi. 22, fig. 1.) 

Doctor Manigault, curator of the Charleston Museum, wrote to Professor Cope 
regarding these teetli, as follows: 

Another peculiarity of the head coneists in the lower maxillary bones being provided each at its 
point with a single small and very sharp tooth. These were not noticed during the dissection, owing 
to their being loo much embedded in the integuments." 

20971. Bamegat City, New Jersey.- — Adult female. The teetli are slender, 
cylindrical, and iri'egularly pointed at both ends. The tips show what appears 
to be an inner core of dentine which has been worn down nearly to the cement coat- 
ing and somewhat fractured. The cement coating is several millimeters thick, 
but does not increase the diameter of the teetli near the middle, so that they remain 
irregularly cylindrical throughout. The surface of the cement is rough and irregular. 
The root is short, conical, and closed at the end. These teeth are nearly straight. 
As they have been extracted from the jaw and the latter is broken it is not possible 
to distinguish which is the upper and which the lower surface, but they are irregu- 
larly oval in section, and a little compressed. (PI. 38, figs. 3-5.) 

In my original notes on this specimen, I recorded that there was a small pair 
of teeth behind the larger ones described above. Mention of these will be made 
again later. (See p. 57.) 

22069. Bering Island. — Adult female (?). The teeth are in position in this 
specimen and are nearly horizontal in position, but a little inclined upward and 
toward each other. They do not extend beyond the tip of the jaw nor up to the 
level of the upper surface of the .symphysis, but pn^trude about 13 mm. beyond 
the alveoli on the side. They are rather slender, somewhat fusiform, blunt at both 
ends and slightly curved upward. The surface is irregular. They are nearly 
round in section. The root is closed, and the apex shows what appears to be a 
core of dentine surrounded by cement. There is a depression on the inner side 
near the root. These teeth are remarkable as intermediate in form between tho.se 
of the preceding specimen and those of the specimens next to be mentioned. (PI. 
38, fig,s. 6, 7;pl'.22, fig. 3.) 

20993. Bering Island.— Mvlt male («). (Type of Z. grebnitzkii.) These 
teeth are almond-shaped and very symmetrical. They are thickest near the base 
and taper gradually to the tip, which is quite acute. They are somewhat compressed 
and hence elliptical in section, the vertical diameter being greater than the trans- 
verse diameter. One .side (probably the inner) is flattened. They are slightly 
curved upward toward the apex, which is a little worn and fractured. The root 
is very short and conical. It is nearly closed, but a very small canal extends upward 
for about 10 mm. The .surface of the tooth is quite smooth, but dull in the lowi?r 
half. Tiie line of demarcation between cement and dentine is not evident. (PI 38 
figs. 8, 9; pi. 23, fig. 1.) 

21248. Bering Island.~Kd\\\i male (?). In this specimen the teeth are still 
in the natural position in the jaw. They are held in place by ligaments and pro- 

o Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 15. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIIDiE TBXJE. 57 

trude far beyond the alveoli, only about one-ninth of their length being below 
the superior border. They incline forward at an angle of about 45° with the longi- 
tudinal axis of the jaw and diverge slightl}' at the tips. 

The teeth themselves have the same general form as those of the preceding 
specimen, but are larger. The inner surface is flattened and the outer strongly 
convex. The tips are quite pointed, but show some indications of wear. The 
roots can not be seen distinct!}-, but appear to be closed. (PI. 22, fig. 4.) 

49599. Newport, Rhode Island. — Adult male. These teeth are longer than those 
of the preceding specimen, and while they resemble the latter in general form, taper 
much more gradually to the tip. The root, or portion below the point of maximum 
girth, is much shorter than that above, and rugose, with several deep furrows. A 
very small circular opening at the base of the root marks the orifice of the nerve. 
The upper half of the teeth is smooth, and the tips slightly worn and fractured. 
The small elliptical worn area is situated on the convex side of the tooth, which 
appears to be the outer side. As the alveoli of the jaw are, however, filled with a 
network of bone, the teeth can not be inserted in them. They were detached when 
received. (PI. 38, figs. 10, 11; pi. 22, fig. 2; pi. 23, figs. 2, 3.) 

Besides the difference in the size and form of the teeth in the two sexes, it is 
probable, as will be seen by consulting the foregoing data, that in the female the 
apex of the teeth does not extend more than a very small distance above the alveoli 
even in mature individuals, and probably often not more than a few millimeters; 
•while in adult males the teeth are almost entirely protruded from the alveoli, which 
are filled with a coarse bony network. These differences are carried out in all the 
American specimens, and also characterized the New Zealand specimens, as may be 
learned from the accounts of Haast and Hector. 

A number of rudimentary teeth in addition to the large terminal pair have 
been noted in the Aresquiers, Buenos Ayres, and perhaps other specimens, and 
two such teeth were found in the mandible of the Barnegao specimen, behind the 
large pair. One of these rudimentary teeth has been preserved. It is cylindrical 
and moderately curved. The length is 16 mm. and the diameter 2 mm. The whole 
tooth, with the exception of the extreme tip, is thickly coated with cement. The 
root is closed and the crown acute and apparently abraded by use. (PI. 38, fig. 5.) 

Returning now to the question of the validity of grehnitzhii as a species, I would 
say that after comparing the measurements of the Bering Island skulls with those 
of the Atlantic coast specimens, and comparing the skulls themselves, I have been 
unable to fintl anj- constant difference of importance, except the size and form of 
the periotic bone. As the earbones are lacking from many of the skulls, the series 
available for comparison is small. 

As compared with the Atlantic coast specimens, the anterior portion of the 
periotic bone in grebnitzkii is larger, broader, and more rectangular in outline 
when viewed from below. I ob.serve, however, that the absolute size and outline 
of the periotic vary considerablj^ in the different specimens of grehnitzkii without 
relation to age. The same appears to be true of cavirostris, but comj^aring the two 
series of skulls as a whole it appears to be true that the anterior mass of the periotic 
is larger in grehnitzhii. I do not think, however, that the latter species should be 



58 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

kept ilistinct on this account alone, at least until the character has been confirmed, 
and perhaps strengthened by others, through the examination of a larger series of 
specimens. 

SKELETON OF ZIPHIUS FROM BERING ISLAND. 

The Museum collection contains an incomplete skeleton of a very young indi- 
vidual. Cat. No. 22875, which was received from Bering Island with the skulls of 
Z. grebnitzHi, but does not belong to any one of them. Wbether it really represents 
that species is, therefore, uncertaiji, but such is probably the case. The length of 
the vertebral column, consisting of 45 vertebriB, without interspaces, is 9 feet 
2 inches. 

The vertebral formula is as follows: C. 7; Th. 10; L. 10; Ca. 18 (+ 1 ?!= 45 (+ 1 ?). 
This is the same as in the type of semijunctus so far as the cervicals, thoracics, and 
lumbars are concerned, and the probable total is the same. In their general 
characters these vertebrae agree with those of the skeletons already described, but 
they present a number of differences as well. On account of immaturity the 
processes are even less developed than in semijunctus. All the epiphyses are free, 
and in the third to the seventh thoracic vertebrae the neural arch and spine are 
separate fi-om the centrum. The centra are very short in proportion to their width. 

Although the specimen is so young, the anterior foramen of the atlas is, never- 
theless, inclosed bj^ bone, and though the Ime of separation between the atlas and 
axis is visible on the sides, the fourth cervical is ancl\ylosed to the third at the top 
of the centrum. Although the neural spines, metapophyses, and transverse proc- 
esses of the thoracics are much shorter than those of the young semijunctus, the 
epiphyses are as large or even larger than in that specimen. The neural arches are 
also noticeably thicker than in semijunctus, and the centra are rounded inferiorly 
rather than carinated. The neural spines are much more nearly erect than in the 
adult Barnegat and Newjjort skeletons, but, as mentioned on page 41, this is 
probabl}' a character of immaturity, and is shared by semijunctus. 

The differences as regards the form of the centra and neural arches die away 
among the lumbars, and these vertebrte and the caudals are, with a due allowance 
for greater immaturitj-, very similar to those of semijunctus. 

The seventh thoracic is like the sixth in form, and is without a transverse 
process. It thus resembles the same vertebra in semijunctus. The eighth, how- 
ever, has an ill-deiined facet on the side of the metapophysis and a second facet a 
little above the upper border of the centrum. The eighth pair of ribs has only a 
smgle terminal articular facet. 

The ninth thoracic has a short, thick transverse process, about in line with the 
upper surface of the centrum. 

The transverse process of the seventh caudal is perforated on the right side by 
a foramen. The transverse processes are last traceable on the ninth caudal, the 
neural spines on the tenth caudal, and the neural arch on the eleventh caudal. 
Eight che\Ton bones are preserved, but probably two more were present originally. 

Ten pairs of ribs are present. The first is much broader in the proximal half 
than in the distal half, but the distal end is slightly expanded. The first seven pairs 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TEL'E. 59 

possess both head and tubercle, but the eighth, nhith, and tenth have onlj^ a smgle 
terminal articular facet. 

The sternum, which consists of five segments, is similar in form to that of 
semijunctus. The two sides of each segment are united. The posterior emargina- 
tion of the third segment, and those of both ends of the fourth and fifth segments 
are small. The scapula and humerus are like those of semijunctus in form. The 
remaining parts of both pectoral limbs are lacking. 

Without more material, and especially some skeletons of adults, it is difficult 
to decide what importance should be assigned to the differences observable in the 
cervical and thoracic vertebra of this young Bering Island specimen. The 
measurements of the skeleton are included in the table on pages 47 and 48. 

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 

The series of photographs (Cat. No. 142579) of an individual obtained in Kiska 
Harbor, Alaska, is very interesting as affording comparison of what is apparently a 
specimen of grebnitzkii with the Atlantic form represented in the photograph of 
the Newport, Rhode Island, specimen. As no part of the Kiska specimen was 
preserved, it is not possible, of course, to identify it positively with grehnitzkii or 
even with the genus Ziphius. No one who compares the photographs reproduced 
in PI. 41, figs. 3 and 4, can, I think, fail to be convinced that both represent animals 
of the same genus and that the Pacific species (whether grebnitzhii or not) bears the 
strongest possible resemblance to the Atlantic one. 

Doctor Egbert published the following note on the Kiska specimen in 190.5: 

Early in September a monster dolphin grounded on the beach in Kiska Harbor and was killed. 
Specific identification has not yet been made. The general color was bluish-gray; length, 18* feet; 
estimated weight, 3,600 pounds; sex, male. Body was quite regular in shape and rather rotund, the 
greatest circumference being about midway between dorsal fin and tip of the rather short snout. This 
dolphin was hauled alongside the ship, stripped of its blubber, and the oil extracted. Some of the flesh 
was eaten. The oil obtained was of excellent quality. It was particularly desired for use on the wire 
of the deep-sea sounding machine used aboard the [U. S. Coast Survey steamer] Patterson, a 

The size was about the same as that of the Newport specimen. ^Uthough 
Doctor Egbert gives the color merely as "bluish gray," the photographs indicate 
that the belly was white, or whitish, and that there were oval white spots on the 
sides. As a whole, therefore, the coloration was similar to that of the New Zealand 
specimens of cavirosiris obtained at Port Cooper and Lyttleton Harbor. 

When compared with the photograph of the Newport specimen (PI. 41, fig. 4) 
it will be seen that the Kiska photograph represents an animal practically identical in 
general form, as well as in the general shape of the head, the length and form of the 
snout, the size and general shape of the pectoral fins. In the photograph of the New- 
port specimen the flukes are not well seen, but in the Kiska photograph the posterior 
median convexity peculiar to the ziphioids is clearly represented. The dorsal iin 
of the Newport specimen appears to be turned somewhat to one side and the tip 
crumpled, which makes it appear lower and somewhat longer and less pointed than 

1 Forest and Stream, vol. 65, 1905, p. 452. 
2476.S— Bull. 73—10 5 



60 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

that of the Kiska specimen. This may, of course, be a real difference, though such 
is probably not the case. 

Considering the foregoing data relative to grehnitzkii as a whole, there is not in 
my opinion sufficient warrant at present for considering this form as a species 
distinct from camrostris, and it should be added that no distinguisliing characters 
were given in the original description. 



Genus BERARDIUS Duvemoy. 

Of this genus the National Museum has three skulls and three skeletons repre- 
senting the species bairdii, and a skull representing the species arnuxii. The latter, 
Cat. No. 21.511, U.S.N.M., is without exact locality, but is catalogued as having been 
obtained in New Zealand. As the species arnuxii has been well described and 
figured by Flower " and others, no detailed account of this skull is given here. 
Measurements of it, however, are included with those of B. hairdii in the table on 
p. 68. 



BERARDIUS BAIRDII Stejneger. 

Berardius bairdii Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 6, p. 75, June 22, 1883. 
Berardius vegx Malm, Bihang K. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handl., vol. 8, 1883, No. 4, p. 109.6 

This species was based by Dr. L. Stejneger on a skull obtained by Mr. N. Greb- 
nitzki in Stare Gavan, on the eastern shore of Bering Island, Commander Group, 
Bermg Sea, in the autumn of 1881. In 1879 a portion of a skull of the same species 
was found on Bering Island by the Vega expedition, and was made the basis of a 
new species, B. vegx, by A. W. Malm, the description of which was published a few 
months after that of Doctor Stejneger. The National Museum subsequently 
received another skull from Bering Island, through Mr. N. Grebnitzki, but, so far 
as I am aware, nothing further was heard of the species until 1903 and 1904, when 
the National Museum received three nearly complete skeletons, two of them from 
St. George Island, Pribilof Group, Bering Sea, and one from the coast of California. 
The material now in the National Museum is as follows: " 

(1) Cat. No. 20992. — Skull and mandible of an immature individual collected 
by Dr. L. Stejneger in Bering Island. Original number 1520. Catalogued Novem- 
ber 24, 1883. Type. 

(2) Cat. No. (lacking).— Skull and mandible of an immature individual. Col- 
lected by Mr. N. Grebnitzki in Bering Island ( ?). Mounted. 

(3) Cat. No. 142118. — Skull, mandible, and cervical vertebrae of a very young 
individual. Collected by Dr. L. Stejneger, June 5, 1883, on North Rookery, Bering 

1 Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 8, 1871, pp. 203-234, pis. 27-29. 
6 See Bull. Amer. Geogr. Soc, 1886, No. 4, p. 328. 

c There is, or was formerly, in the museum of the Alaska Commercial Company in San Francisco a 
skull of Berardius 3 feet 6 inches long. The locality in which it was obtained is unknown to me. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ — TKUE. 61 

Island. Original number 2191. This specimen is accompanied by notes and 
measurements. 

(4) Cat. No. 49726. — Skeleton and measurements of an adult female. Near 
East Eookery, St. George Island, Pribilof Group. Collected by James Judge, in 
June, 1903. Length, 40 feet 2 inches. 

(5) Cat. No. 49727. — Skeleton and measurements of an immature male. Same 
locality and date as the preceding. Length, 2.5 feet 5 inches. 

The two skeletons (4) and (5) are somewhat incomplete. The Museum received 
a photograph of the female from Maj. Ezra W. Clark. 

(6) Cat. No. 4972.5. — Skeleton and two photographs of an adult male ( ?) 
stranded on Centerville beach near Ferndale, Humboldt County, California, October, 
1904. Length, about 41 feet. 

A brief note on the St. George Island and California skeletons was published 
by the author in Science for 1904." The dimensions given by the collectors were 
so large as to raise doubts whether they were correct, but the arrival of the skeletons 
proved that thej' were not overstated, and that the specimens were b}- far the 
largest ziphioid whales ever discovered, the bones about equaling those of a hump- 
back whale in size and massiveness. 

HISTORY OF THE ST. GEORGE ISLAND SPECIMENS. 

The St. George Island specimens were first maile known b}' Mr. James Judge, 
special agent of the Treasury Department, resident at the Pribilof Islands, in letter 
dated June 16, 1903, as follows: 

I was much surprised the other day to find a pair of whales ashore near East Rookery [St. George 
Island]. They lay about 1.50 yards apart. The female was 40 feet 2 inches, the male 2.5 feet .5 inches 
in length. The species is not positively identified, but tallies closely with the Globe Encyclopedia 
description of Bottlehead or Bottlenose whale, Hyperodoon bidentalus. Natives call it "Tcha-dhan." 
The male is without teeth; female has two teeth in front of lower jaw.6 The skin is thin, smooth, white 
underneath, and black above. Dorsal fin small and well aft. Caudal large and powerful. Eyes very 
small. Ears not vi.sible. 

Thinking that the skeleton might be of use, the bones of the female were cut out and placed high 
and dry on the grass. Four ribs were broken; otherwise the bones are intact. The male was towed to 
East Landing, and with the aid of a capstan deposited beyond reach of surf. Some blubber was saved. 
The foxes will clean up the bones during August, so that in all probability both skeletons will be avail- 
able this fall. * » * I inclose some measurements, taken roughly, with a 5-foot tape line. 



"Science, new ser., vol. 20, 1904, p. 888. 

6 At the time this was written it was not known that there were really four teeth in the lower jaw, but 
it is interesting to note that when the mandible was covered by the integuments none of the teeth was 
visible in the male, although the individual was 25 feet long, and that only two teeth were visible in the 
adult female. 



62 



BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
Whale measuTements, June 11, 1903. 



Greatest length 

Greatest ciroinnference (much bloated) 

Extremity of upper lip to nostril 

Distance between eyes 

Extremity of lower lip toangle of mouth 

Cireiunfereni-e of head at eyes 

Lower half of snout 10 inches from end 

Upper half of snout 12 inches from end 

Length of (pectoral) fin along outer edge 

Circumference of tail [at] junction [with] caudal fin . 

Distance between extreme points of caudal fin 

Anus to end of body 

Anus to vagina 

Anus to penis 

Length of vagina 

Length of penis 

Penis at base 

Height of dorsal fin 

Dorsal fin along spine to end of body 

Length of nipple from raised base 



Female. Male. 



Ft. in. 



12 
11 11 
1 



Ft. in. 
25 S 



12 
3 
3 
1 
7 
1 
1 
3 
3 
6 
7 



1 9 

1 5 

7J 

7 5 



The skeletons remained on the island until August, 1904, when they were 
carried by the revenue cutter McCulloch to Dutch Harbor and afterwards to San 
Francisco. Through a misunderstanding they were allowed to remain on the 
beach at St. George Island until November, 1903, and suffered considerable injury. 
On that date they were deposited in a storehouse by Maj. Ezra W. Clark, assistant 
treasury' agent in charge, who afterwards presented the photograph of the female 
above mentioned. (PI. 42, fig. 1.) The latter shows the short, narrow, pointed 
pectoral fin, and long, rather slender beak. 

Another specimen of Berardius was found stranded on St. George Island on 
August 21, 1909. The following information regarding it was received from Maj. 
Ezra W. Clark, under date of September 4, 1909: 

On August 21, 1909, after an unusually severe gale for the season, accompanied with heavy sea, a 
beaked whale was stranded under the cliffs of the northeast coast of St. George Island. Its position 
was ^'uch that it was reached with great difficulty. It was undergoing decomposition. I succeeded in 
getting the following information: 

Sex, female. 

Length from tip of beak to end of body, 22 feet. 

Length of beak, tip»to base, 2 feet .5 inches. 

Length of head, not including beak, 2 feet. 

Length of tail, or width of flukes at base, 1 foot 10 inches. 

Girth around beak at it."? base, 2 feet. 

Girth around body at dorsal fin, about 12 feet. 

Girth around body at base of tail, :? feet. 

Spread of tail, or flukes, 6 feet. 

Length of dorsal fin at base, 1 foot 10 inches. 

Fore fins, 1 foot 10 inches. 

I think that I shall not be able to get the skeleton of this whale, owing to the rough seas prevailing. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TRUE. 63 

HISTORY OF THE CENTERVILLE, CALIFORNIA, SPECIMEN. 

The Californian specimen (Cat. No. 49725) was first made known in a letter 
addressed to me by President Jordan, of Stanford University, under date of October 
27, 1904, inclosing one from Mr. J. H. Ring, of Ferndale, California, dated October 
23, 1904, which was as follows: 

Enclosed find three views of an animal stranded on the beach near this place [Ferndale, Humboldt 
County, California], and as its identity seems rather uncertain we hope you will kindly classify it and 
inform us of its true name and habitat, if possible, from the photographs and incomplete description. 
Its total length is about 41 feet. Greatest circumference 16 feet, tapering probably to 18 inches near 
the tail. It also tapers toward the head, terminating in a sharp beak, the upper jaw being about 16 
and the lower 19 inches long. 

On each side in the lower jaw well to the front is a conical tooth, the crown of which is exposed one- 
half an inch. The head is full and rounded, resembling that of an elephant, with depressions corre- 
sponding to the ears, and small eyes a little ahead and below. 

On top of head is a heart-shaped opening, evidently for breathing purposes. There is also evidence 
of a dorsal fin, while each fork of tail is 3J feet or so long. The underside of the animal is too bruised 
to show anything of importance. The flippers are also in bad shape, one being buried in the sand, 
while the other is entirely denuded of flesh, leaving a bony stump about 6 inches long and which moves 
readily in any direction. We think it is a "bottle-nose" whale, but as some claim that they are not 
to be found on this coast and do not exceed 30 feet in length, it may be something else. 

Mr. Ring was immediately communicated with, and very generously presented 
to the Museum the skull of the animal, which he had secured and cleaned with much 
labor and some danger to himself. He also undertook to have the skeleton cleaned 
and sent to Washington, and it was received in due course in June, 1905. Mr. 
Ring wrote under date of May 15, 1905: 

You will notice that the point of the beak, as well as the points of the lower jawbones, are a little 
damaged, some hunters having shot the teeth out and then set a fire inside the jaws. 

Wlien received, the skeleton lacked the flippers and also two of the teeth. 
Regarding the former, Mr. Ring wrote on November 18, 1905, as follows: 

I wrote you that one flipper was entirely gone and the other worn down to a stump, as shown in the 
picture. I have interviewed the man who stripped the specimen, and he says the stump was badly 
crushed and broken and fears it was lost one night when the extremely high tide had turned the whale 
over, and only the anchors and lashings I had secured it with prevented its going out to sea. 

Tlus skeleton was mounted recenth' and placed on exhibition in the Museum. 
The flippers were modeled from those of the St. George Island specimens (which 
were also imperfect) and from the figures of B. arnuxii given by Flower. The end 
of the beak was also restored, and a facsimile of the teeth substituted for the real 
ones. This remarkable skeleton shows in a manner hitherto unapproached the great 
size which this genus of zipliioid whales attains, and the peculiar conformation of 
the body. While the vertebrie rival those of the large whalebone whales, such as 
the Humpbacks, in their dimensions, the head is remarkable for its small size as 
compared with the immense proportions of the same part in the Right whales. 
(PI. 42, fig. 4.) 

Mr. Ring sent to the Museum three photographs of the Californian specimen 
above mentioned, two of which are reproduced on PI. 42, figs. 2 and 3. Although 
rather indistinct, they show the general form of the body, the peculiar bulbous 
head, with an indication of a neck, and the long beak. 



64 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

DESCRIPTION OF A YOUNG BERING ISLAND SPECIMEN. 

Doctor Stejnegcr has very kindly placed in my hands his original notes on the 
young individual examined by him in Bering Island June 5, 1883 (Cat. No. 142,188) 
and they are given below in full: 

"When the news reached me that a small "plavum" was found dead ashore at the North Rookery of 
Bering Island, I immediately ordered dogs, and arrived at the place in company with the "starost." 
The carcass was foimd lying on the very beach where the fur seals during the summer occupy the ground. 
As the bulk of the seals had not yet arrived, only a few "sikatschi" were seen in the immediate neigh- 
borhood, but it wag reported that they had retired from the place on account of the smell of the putrefied 
body, as it was thought. The natives, fearing that it would drive the seals from the rookery altogether 
if left on the beach any longer, were very anxious to get it away as fast as possible, and it was only with 
some hesitation that they would allow one to stand on the rookery long enough to take a few measure- 
ments. The animal was quite a young one, and I conjectured that it had died immediately after having 
been bom, as I think there were some remains of the umbilical cord. Hardly any of the bones were 
fully ossified. Under these circumstances, it was out of the question to have the whole skeleton pre- 
served, as the dismembering and the separation of the putrifled flesh from the bones and cartilages 
would require more care and consequently more time than the natives were willing to allow. I was 
therefore glad to secure the head and some of the neck vertebrte. Even that tried their patience, as 
the head was going to separate into its single bones and the not yet united component pieces, and con- 
sequently needed special care and attention. 

The carcass was lying with the back upward, this visible part being uniform black, and still in 
such a state as to allow of measuring. The lower surface was in a very advanced state of decomposition. 
Part of the belly was torn away, together with the entrails, and the genitalia and anus were not to be 
found. As stated above, I think that I could recognize the umbilical cord attached to a tatter of the 
skin. Of course, measurements of the lower side and of the circumference of the body, except at the 
narrowest place of the tail, could not be taken. 

Table of dimensions. 

Meters. 
Total length from tip of upper jaw to notch of caudal fin, along the middle of the 

back, without, however, following the angle between beak and forehead 4. 81 

From tip of upper jaw to fore border of spiracles 53 

From fore border of the spiracles to fore border of dorsal fin 2. 63 

Length of dorsal fin 29 

Height of dorsal fin 11 

From hind border of dorsal fin to the beginning of the caudal fin 93 

From the same point to notch of the caudal fin 1. 36 

Distance between the tips of the lobes of the caudal fin 91 

Depth of the angle of the posterior margin of caudal fin 20 

From tip of upper jaw to the angle of mouth 36 

From the same to anterior angle of eye 475 

Diameter of eye opening 06 

From eye to eye over the spiracle 59 

Distance between ends of spiracle 08 

Length of beak from the forehead 23 

Breadth of the beak at the forehead 18 

From tip of upper jaw to anterior insertion of the pectoral fin SO 

Pectoral fin along the anterior border 51 

Breadth of pectoral fin a at the insertion 20 

Circumference of tail at its narrowest point, just before the caudal fin 62 

oThe pectoral fin rather straight, of equal breadth, and abruptly ending. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TEUE. 



65 



ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION OF BERARDIUS BAIRDII. 

The original description of B. bairdii by Doctor Stejneger is as follows: 

Besides an Orca, which is said to visit the rookeries, but of which I have not been able to procure 
any specimen, or even to see one, there are at least two species of the family Ziphiidit-, both undescribod, 
as I suppose. I am very much indebted to Mr. Grebnitzki for a skull of each of the species, for one of 
which I should like to propose the name Berardius bairdii, as a slight token of my esteem and gratitude. 

As I am now almost without any literary means, I find it impossible to decide with certainty 
in what genus this species will finally have to be placed. But I think that the supposition that this 
specimen (No. 1520) is a young Berardius may not be far out of the way. At first I suspected that it 
is a Dioplodon, but the size of the skull, in connection with the distinctness of the sutures, the evident 
maxillary crests, and the terminal position of the teeth very soon led me to the above conclusion. 

The specimen in question has very low and scarcely incurved maxillary crests; the shortest distance 
of which is two and two-thirds times greater than their greatest height, and although it still is in ita 
"adolescent" stage, I should greatly doubt whether the crests in this s^iecies ever become developed 
to such a degree as, for instance, in Hypcroodon diodon (Lacgp.). The groove between the maxUlary 
and the nuchal crest is very shallow. The maxillary notch is deep. The beak is long, making only 
a little less than half the length of the entire skull. Nares straight; right nasal larger than the left one, 
but not very much. The occipital condyles do not come in contact beneath the foramen magnum; 
the symphysis of the lower jaw is very short, amounting to only one-fifth of the whole length of the jaw. 

Want of time and books prevents me from making more extended remarks, and until I can present 
an exhaustive and comparative description, I shall have to content myself by giving a provisional table 
of dimensions. The following dimensions are in millimeters and English inches, and are in every case 
measured in a straight line: 



Length of skull 

Greatest breadth 

Greatest height 

Length from process of supramaxlllaries before orbit to posterior edge of condyles. 

Length from same process to tip of beak 

Depth of maxillary notch 

Length of premaxillaries 

Prema-xillaries reach beyond supramaxlllaries 

Distance of upper edge of maxillary crests at their anterior end 

Distance of same at their middle 

Greatest height of maxillary crests 

Length of visible part of vomer 

Distance from anterior tip of vomer to tip of beak 

Length of pterygoids 

Height of foramen magnum 

Width of foramen magnum 

Distance of condyles at upper edge of foramen magnum 

Closest approximation of condyles beneath the foramen magnum 

Entire length of lower jaw 

Height of lower jaw at second tooth groove 

Length of symphysis 

Greatest diameter of foremost tooth groove (longitudinal) 

Shortest diameter of foremost tooth groove (transverse) 

Greatest diameter of posterior tooth groove (longiUidinal) 

Shortest diameter of posterior tooth groove (transverse) 

Distance between the tooth grooves 



Milli- 
meters. 



Inches. 



530 

610 

890 

50 

.,222 

134 

228 

358 

86 

325 

275 

295 

70 

80 

100 

2 

1,292 

100 

. 257 

100 

43 

40 

35 

65 



55.32 

27.48 

20.87 

24.02 

35.04 

1.97 

48.11 

5.28 

8.98 

14.10 

3.39 

12.80 

10.83 

11.62 

2.76 

3.15 

3.94 

0.08 

50.88 

3.94 

10.12 

3.94 

1.77 

1.58 

1.38 

2.56 



66 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

This Bpecimen was found stranded in Stare Gavan, on the eastern shore of Bering Island in the fall 
of last year, and only the skull was preserved. From analogy I should judge that the entire length of 
the animal must have been about 18 feet (5* meters). This species is well known by the natives for the 
cathartic quality of the blubber, resembling in this respect the Atlantic ' ' Dogling, ' ' or " Anarnak ' ' {Uypcr- 
oodon diodon). The Russian name, by which the inhabitants here designate this whale, is Pla-un 
(sp. Pliioon), while the Aleut name is Kigan agulusoch, the meaning of which is said to be "having 
teeth on the nose," a very inappropriate designation, as the teeth are situated on the tip of the lower 
jaw, and not on the nose." 

SIZE. 

It will be observed that the largest of the foregoing specimens measured 40 
feet 2 inches in length, wliile the Centerville skeleton was reported to be about 41 
feet long. The largest example of the New Zealand species, B. arnuxii, of which 
there is a record was 32 feet long. 

COLORATION. 

The St. George Island specimens were reported to be black on the back and 
white below, but it is not certain how long they had been dead when foimd by Mr. 
Judge. The young individual examined by Doctor Stejneger was also black on 
the back, but this was in a state of decomposition. 

The color of the type-specimen of Berardius arnuxii was described by Arnoux 
as follows: "Its color was entirely black, except for a light graj^ area near the genital 
organs; it was a male."* Haast remarks of a j'oung individual observed by liim 
near New Brighton, New Zealand, and not in a fresh condition: "The color of the 
whole animal was of a deep, velvety black, with the exception of the lower portion 
of the belly, which had a grayish color." " 

The color of the immature male of B. arnuxii captured in Wellington Harbor, 
New Zealand, in 1877, and described by Hector, was as follows: "The colour was 
black with a pm'ple hue, except a narrow band along the belly, which was grey. 
The muzzle, fhppers, and tail lobes were intenselj^ black." <* 

It is not likely that there is any marked difference in the color of arnuxii and 
bairdii, but the data aA'ailable are insufficient for the determination of the matter. 
It will be observed, however, that Mr. Judge stated that the male hairdii foimd on 
St. George Island was white below, while in all the accounts of arnuxii the color of 
the under surface is given as blackish, with a restricted area of gray. 

Besides its apparently greater size, Berardius hairdii differs from B. arnuxii in 
various cranial and other osteological characters, as well as in external proportions, 
and is to be regarded as a distinct species. The external measurements of the 
St. George Island specimens reduced to percentages of the total length and com- 
pared with similar measurements of a specimen of B. arnuxii described by Hector, 
are as follows: 



a Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 6, pp. 75-77, June 22, 1883. 

t> Duvernoy, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 3, Zool., vol. 15, 1851, p. 52, footnote. 

cAnn. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 6, October, 1870, p. 348. 

<i Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 10, 1878, p. 338. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIIDiE TEUE. 

External dimensions of Berardius hairdii and B. arnuxii. 



67 



Measurements. 



Total length 

Distance from tip of snout to blowhole 

Distance from tip of mandible to comer of mouth 

Breadth of flukes from tip to tip 

Length of pectoral fin along outer edge 

Distance from anus to "end of body" 

Height of dorsal fin 

Distance from anterior base of dorsal fin to "end of body '' 



baiTiii. 



49726 
St. George 
Island, 
Alaska, 
(Judge), 
female 
adult. 



40 



per cent. 
10.8 

6.0 
25.3 
12.4 
29.0 

2.5 
29.7 



49737 

St. George 

Island, 

Alaska, 

(Judge), 

male 

imm. 



/(. in. 
25 5 



per c€nX. 
11.8 

6.9 
24.6 
13.4 
29.8 

2.4 
29.2 



Wellington, 
New Zea- 
land, 
(Hector), 
male. 



//. in. 
27 6 



per cent. 
12.8 
n6.1 
19.1 
9.4 
[34.0] 
3.0 
[34.6] 



a " Length of gape." 

The measurements of these specimens of hairdii agree well together. The 
specimen of arnuxii appears to have had narrower flukes, shorter pectoral fin, and 
a rather higher dorsal fin, situated farther forward than in hairdii. Measurements 
of a larger number of specimens might show that some or all of these differences of 
proportion are elusive, but it will be observed that in the Wellington specimen of 
arnuxii, recorded by Doctor Haast, the breadth of the flukes is only 21 per cent of 
the total length. The pectoral fin is said to be only 19 inches long, or only 5.2 per 
cent of the total length, but the manner of taking the measurement is not mentioned. 

As regards size, the largest specimen of B. arnuxii of which I find record is the 
type specimen. This was 32 feet long, and the skull 1,400 mm., or about 55 inches 
long. This appears to have been an adult male. The Centerville specimen of 
hairdii, which was an adult male, was about 41 feet long, and the skull 1,532 mm., 
or about 60 inches long, while the adult female from St. George Island was 40 feet 
2 inches long and the skull 56 inches. Although the total length of the specimens 
of hairdii is so much greater, it vnW be observed that the length of tlie skull, while a 
little greater, absolutely fails to measure up to the proportions found in arnuxii. 
It might be suspected on this account that the external measurements of hairdii 
were exaggerated, but tliat such is not tlie case ■vnll appear from an examination of 
the measurements of vertebrse given on page 75. It is evident that the specimens 
of hairdii are far more massive in all parts of the skeleton than the specunen of 
arnuxii there cited. The same relations will be found upon comparing measure- 
ments of the specimen of arnuxii figured by Van Beneden and Gervais." The 
truth appears to be that hairdii is a much larger species, but tliat the skull is 
considerablv smaller relativelv. 



1 Ost^ographie des C6tac6.s, pi. 23 *>'». 



68 



BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



SKULL. 

The skull of Berardius bairdii presents many characters by which it may be 
distinguished from that of arnuxii, whether adult or young. As compared with 
the latter, the rostrum is less massive at the base. The pterygoid has a rounded 
extension posterior^ and superiorly, so that the posterior portion of the upper 
border of the pterygoid sinus is convex, rather than nearly straight, as in arnuxii. 
The exoccipital is larger and broader distally below, and its external surface is 
plane or concave, rather than convex, as in arnuxii. The distal end of the zygo- 
matic process is much more incurved. The nasal bones instead of presenting 
lateral extensions have nearly straight sides. The vomer is deeply emarginate at 
the base of the skull posteriorly where it rests against the presphenoid. The pala- 
tines extend scarcel}^ or not at all in front of the pterygoids. The foregoing differ- 
ences will readily be seen by comparing the figures on Pis. '26-29 with those of the 
type of B. arnuxii given in Van Beneden and Gervais's Osteography, plate 23. 

The following are dimensions of skulls of both species: 

Dimensions of Jive skulls of Berardius bairdii {including the type) and of three skulls ofB. arnuxii. 



Measurements. 


B. arnuxii. 


B. bairdii. 


New 

Brighton. 

New 

Zealand 

18f"i8 

(Flower). 

No. 3. 


New 
Zealand 
(V. B. 
and 
Gerv.). 
(Type). 

m 


21511, 
U.S. 

N. M., 

New 

Zealand 

young. 


49726, 

St. 
George 
Island, 
female, 

adult. 


49725, 
Center- 
ville, 
Cali- 
fornia. 
male(?) 
adult. 


20992, 
Bering 
Island, 
(Type). 


49727, 

St. 
George 
Island. 

male, 
young. 


Mounted 
skull, 
Bering 

IslandC?) 
(Greb- 

nltzkl?). 


Total length of sk-ull 


mm. 
1,372 

533 
c 625 

686 

671 
919 
399 
152 


mm. 
1,392 

494(?) 
684 

748 

748 
894 
414 
150 


mm. 
'•1.174 

493 
577 

606 

584 
800 
378 
149 


mm. 
1,524 

563 
766 

808 

750 
960 
475 
207 


mm. 
1,423 

544 
682 

722 

675 
925 
420 
197 


mm. 
1,378 


mm. 
1,062(?) 


mm. 
1,474 

575 
[716] 

(760] 

[740] 

1,025 

429 

223 


Height from vertex to inferior 
border of pterygoids 


Breadth across middle of orbits. . 
Breadth across postorbital proc- 


662 

880 
428 
188 


530 

560 

520 

578-1- 

310 


Breadth across zygomatic proc- 




Breadth of rostrum at base 

Breadth of rostrum at middle d . , . 
Length of premaxilljo 


Breadth of premaxillae at middle d 

Greatest breadth of premaxilte 

in front of nares 


91 
208 


90 
210 
240 

1 nan 


101 
189 
193 

935 

252 


120 
235 
215 

1,185 

276 


119 
217 
193 

1,130 

270 


115 
238 
181 

260 


187 
165 

720 -f 

115-1- 


125 
239 

197 

1,187 
307 


Greatest breadth of premaxillae 
behind nares 


Distance from anterior end of pre- 
maxillae to posterior end of 
pterygoids (median) 


1,097 


Distance from anterior end of pre- 
maxillae to anterior end of vo- 
mer 


345 264 



" From Van Beneden and Gervais figure. 
SA little broken at tip. 



c" Suprafrontal processes of maxillae." 
d Same point. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPFTIID^ TRITE. 



69 



Dimensions of five ikulls of Berardius hairdii (including the type) and of three skulls of B. arnuxii — 

Continued. 



Measurements. 



B. arnuxii. 



New 
Brighton, 

New- 
Zealand 

1808 
(Flower). 

No. 3. 



I 



New 
Zealand 

(V. B. 

and 

Gerv.). 

(Type). 



Length of portion of vomer visi- 
ble on palate 

Length of nasals (greatest, me- 
dian, straight ) 

Breadth of nasals (greatest) 

Breadth of anterior nares 

Breadth of foramen magnum 

Breadth across occipital condyles. 

Breadth of each condyle 

Height of each condyle 

Length of mandible 

Length of symphysis 

Height at coronoid 

Distance from tip of jaw to center 
of first tooth 

Distance from tip of jaw to center 
of second tooth 



102 
74 
61 

191 



" 1, 245 
310 
2U 



21511, 
U.S. 

N. M., 
New 

Zealand 

young. 



mm. 
420 



2o3± 



162(?) 134 
180 



102 



213 



B. bairdii. 



49726, 

St. 
George 
Island, 
female, 

adult. 



535 



49725, 
Center- 

ville, 

Cali- 
fornia, 
male(?) 

adult. 



20992, 
Bering 

Island, 
(Type). 



1,236 
294 
222 



125 


119 


80 


110 


72 


85 


186 


261 


75 


123 


135 


193 




1,334 




295 




271 




50 


1 


200 



mm. 
370 

118 
97 
98 
82 
228 
104 
171 
1,289 
295 
230 

48 



135 
105 
96 
84 
240 
108 
168 
1,282 
270 
223 



49727, 

St. 
George 
Island, 

male, 
young. 



Mounted 
slnjll, 
Bering 

Island(7) 
(Greb- 
nitzki?). 



300± 

98 
90 
83 
83 
195 
83 
142 
'>883 
I- 145 
175 

622 



142 
105 
100 

71 
235 

98 
178 
1,360 
310 
245 



a " Length of ramus.' 



d About 27 mm. lacking from tip of mandible. 



The foregoing measurements indicate a considerable variation in proportions 
among the different individuals, but there appears to be nothing that can be fixed 
upon in this small series to distinguish the two species by dimensions alone. 



EARBONES. 



The tympanic and periotic bones of B. hairdii (Pis. 34-.37) present a number 
of characters by which they may be distinguished from those of B. arnuxii. Wliile 
of about the same size in both species, the two bones when in the natural position, 
viewed from without, are nearly square rather than triangular in outline in B. 
hairdii, the superior border of the periotic being nearly parallel with the inferior 
border of the tympanic, and the anterior lobe of the periotic being turned down 
nearly at right angles with the rest of the bone. The periotic is shorter anteriorly 
than" the tvmpanic in B. hairdii, wliile the reverse is true in B. arnurii. In the 
former speJies the eustachian canal of the tympanic is wider, the distance between 
the outer and inner lips being greater. The involuted portion of the iimer hp is 
shorter and differently shaped. The groove between the postero-inferior lobes is 
wider. The periotic beside having a much shorter anterior lobe than in B. arrmm 
has also a smaller and smoother middle lobe, and the internal auditory meatus is 
smaller and more oblique. The dimensions of the bones in the Centerville beach 
skull. No. 49725, are as follows: Tympanic: greatest length, 62 mm.; greatest 



70 



BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



breadth, 4(5; least breadth of eustachian canal, 17; height at sigmoid process, 47. 
Periofic: greatest length, 66; greatest breadth, 40; height at center of middle lobe, 
35; length from tip of anterior lobe to anterior margin of internal meatus, 38. 

TEETH. 

Althougli all the specimens of Berardms bairdii are more or less incomplete, 
two or three of the mandibular teeth have been preserved in nearly every instance; 
namely, in the adult female from St. George Island, the left anterior and right and 
left posterior; in the immature male from the same island, both anterior teeth; 
in the Centerville beach specimen, the left anterior and right (?) posterior teeth; 
in the skull from Bering Island formerly regarded as the type, all four teeth; in the 
very young skull from Bering Island, the left anterior and posterior teeth. 

Taken as a whole, these teeth are not larger than those found in the specimens 
of B. arnuxii thus far recorded, but in both species they vary so much on account 
of age, or for other reasons, that a comparison of dimensions is unsatisfactory. 
The dimensions are a.s follows : 

Dimensions of teeth of Berardius arnuxii and B. bairdii. 



Species and locality. 


Sex and 
age. 


Length. 


Large 


tooth. 


Small tooth. 


Remarks. 


Great- 
est 
height. 


Great- 
est 
breadth. 


Great- 
est 
height. 


Great- 
est 
breadth. 


B. arnuxii. 




//. in. 


mm. 


m.m. 


mm. 


mm. 




Akaroa (Van Benedcn. 

Type). 
New Brighton (Haast 

and Flower). 


Male.... 
Male(?). 


32 
30 6 


■190 
»73 


90 
63 


66 
47 


40 
31 


From figure. 6 
From figure. 


Port Nicholson (I'Cnox 
and Hector). 


(?) 


27 


o65 


50 


(?) 


(?) 


From figure. 


Locality unknown (Van 
Beneden and Gervais, 


(?) 


(?) 


72 


53 


51 


30 


From figure. 


pi. 21 bis). 
















B. bairdii. 
















49725— Centerville, Cali- 
fornia. 


Male(?), 
adult. 


41 ± 


83 


65 


53 


28 




49726-St. George Island.. 


Female, 
adult. 


40 5 


= 79 


72 


62 


45 




49727-St. George Island.. 
142118— Bering Island 


Male, im. 
Young. . 


25 


86 
a 50 


61 
37 








31 


31 






a Tip more or less acute. 


iVanB 


eneden's n 


leasurerr 


ents are s 


Ughtly c 


liflerent. 


c Tip much worn. 



A description of the teeth of the different specimens of B. bairdii is subjoined. 

No. 1421 18.— Bering Island; young (new born?). Anterior tooth conical, 
hollow, with thin walls. The lower half of the tooth is filled with a mass of bony 
pulp, wliich is separable. The tooth is widest at the base, and is without any con- 
striction indicating the formation of a root. Outer and inner surfaces shghtly 
convex, the latter ^vith several distinct longitudinal furrows, which extemi to the 
apex. The whole tooth has a thin coating of cement, except the tip, for a length of 
about 10 mm., which is more nearly white, and consists, presumably, of dentine. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ TRUE. 71 

The tooth is very symmetrical, but rather more convex externally. The apex is 
pointed, erect, and a little more convex externally than internally. (PI. 39, figs. 1,2.) 

The posterior tooth is similar to the anterior one, but much shorter and more 
blunt, and the longitudinal furrows are about equally distinct externally and 
internally. The cement extends nearly to the apex, which latter is rery short and 
is directed backward. 

No. 49727. — St. George Island, Alaska; male, immature. Anterior teeth con- 
ical, acute, somewhat unsj^mmetrical, rather more convex externally than internally. 
The internal surface with a deep median longitudinal groove, and others less distinct 
on each side near the base. Apex slightly inchued forward and inward, convex 
externally, with a single longitudinal groove; nearly flat internally, ^vith, or without, 
a groove. Base of tooth for about 17 mm. covered with longitudinal rugosities, 
indicating that the root was about to close. It is open, however, the walls of the 
tooth at the narrowest point being 8 mm. apart and the cavitj^ filled with dense 
bony pulp. The anterior and posterior outlines of the teeth are irregular, being 
convex near the base, then slightly concave, and again convex near the apex. "\Ylien 
in the natural position, these teeth protrude about 3.3 mm., or a little more than 
one-third their height, above the alveolus. (PI. 39, figs. 3, 4.) 

Posterior teeth lackins'. 

No. 4972-5. — Centerville beach, Cahfornia; male (?), adult. Anterior tooth 
conical, with anterior and posterior margins as in the last. Apex considerably 
abratled and rounded off; not inchned inward or forward. Internal and external 
surfaces nearh' ecjually convex, but the former wth a broad median longitudinal 
groove. Root closed, the base of the tooth for a breadth of about 30 mm. covered 
with rounded rugosities. The inferior border slightly convex and the angles 
rounded ofi^. Wlien in the natural position, somewhat more than one-half of the 
tooth protrudes beyond the alveolus, and the tooth itself is inchned forward and 
outward. (PI. 39, fig. 5.) 

Posterior tooth quite irregular in form, but the portion above the rugose base 
or root conical. Inner surface flat and uneven. Outer surface convex and rather 
rugose. The cement covers the whole tooth thickly to witliin about 5 mm. of the 
apex, wliich latter is short, quite acute, and slightly directed inward. It is convex 
externally and nearly flat internally. The basal rugosity or root is conical, thicker 
than the rest of the tooth, and unsymmetrical, being somewhat directed backward. 
It shows no opening below. When in the natural position tliis tooth is strongly 
inclined forward and outward, and onlj- the tip for a length of 22 mm. protrudes 
beyond the alveolus. (PI. 39, fig. 6.) 

No. 4-9726. — St. George Island, Alaska; female, adult. Anterior tooth conical, 
with the tip blunt, having been so much abraded that the dentine does not extend 
beyond the coating of cement. The tip measures 26 by 19 mm. The external and 
internal surfaces of the tooth are about ecjually convex and somewhat rugose with- 
out distinct furrows. The root is thicker than the remainder of the tootli and very 
rugose. It is entirely closed below, and the inferior outline is convex. Posterior 
tooth much compressed, conical above the root, nearly flat internally and slightly 
convex externally. Cement coating very thick and extending to within about 5 
mm. of the dentine apex, which latter is acute and yqvj slightly curved inward and 



72 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

backward. The root is very unsymmetrical, the posterior portion being much 
longer than the anterior. The surface is very rugose, and there is no opening what- 
ever below. Tlio inferior border is convex, with an emargination near the center. 
(PI. 39, llgs. 7, S.) 

In the adult skull from Bering Island, which has been mounted and placed on 
exliibition, the t(>eth tuv fixeil in the alveoli so that their entire lengtli and tlie pecul- 
iarities of the l)asal portion can not be determined. In general form, however, 
they resemble those of the preceding specimen very closely. The anterior teeth 
are placed oblicjuely — that is, so that the anterior margins of the two teeth arc 
nearer together than the posterior margins. The teeth are also somewhat inclini'd 
forward. The posterior teeth are strongly inclined forward and a little outward. 

The anterior teeth are rather concave along the middle internally and convex 
externalh'. The portion above the alveoli is quite smooth. 

The posterior teeth are moderately rugose above the alveoli. The wliitish tips 
of denture are conical, compressed, and rather acute. They extend 6 mm. above 
the denture, and are 11 mm. long at their base, and 6 mm. thick. 

The anterior teeth protrude about 45 mm. above the alveolus (internally); 
their base at the alveolus is from 73 to 76 mm. long, and from 33 to 35 mm. thick. 
The posterior teeth extend about 18 mm. above the alveoli (measured vertically 
from the alveolus), and the base of the visible portion (measured along the alveolus) 
is from 30 to 34 mm. long and from IS to 20 mm. thick. These teeth have an antero- 
external angular enlargement of the cement, so that they are somewhat triangular 
in horizontal section. (PI. 30, fig. 3; pi. 31, fig. 5.) 

The data available are insufficient to enable one to determine satisfactoi'ily 
whether the teeth differ materially in size in tlie two sexes, but it appears probable 
that they do not. 

SKELETON. 

While the skeleton of Berardius bairdii (PI. 42, fig. 4) resembles that of B. 
arnuxii very closely in most particulars, it presents differences which may properly 
be regarded as specific. The vertebral formula of B. arnuxii as given by Flower is 
as follows: C. 7, Th. 10, L. 12, Ca. 19 = 48." The same formula is given for another 
specimen of B. arnuxii by Van Beneden and Gervais, except that the caudals are 
17, two being apparently lacking.* 

Doctor Hector, however, gives a different formula for a third specimen of this 
species, namely, C. 7, Th. 10, L. 13, Ca. 17 = 47. He remarks that "extreme care 
was taken to secm-e the whole of the small tail bones." "^ The discrepancy here 
shown can not be accomited for at present, but, at all events, none of the formulas 
of B. arnuxii corresponds to that of B. bairdii, as derived from the three skeletons 
in the National Museum, namely, C. 7, Th. 11, L. 12, Ca. 1G+ =46+ . 

The number of thoracic vertebrsi can be determined positively from the youngish 
male from St. George Island (Cat. No. 49727), in which ten pairs of ribs are present, 
together with one rib belongmg to the eleventh pair. This last is much shorter 

1 Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 8, 1872, p. 223. 
* Ost6ographie ties Oetac^s, p. 615, pi. 23 *". 
c Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 10, 1878, p. 339. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIIDiE TRUE. 73 

than the tenth pair, and there can be no doubt that it really belongs to a terminal 
pair. In this skeleton the transverse processes of the eleventh thoracic vertebra 
are thick at the free end like those of the tenth tlioracic vertebra. 

In the atlult male from Centerville beach, California, only ten pahs of ribs are 
present, but as the tenth is quite as long as the ninth, there is little doubt that an 
eleventh pair was present originally. The eleventh thoracic vertebra, however, 
has transverse processes longer and more flattened at the free cud than those of the 
tenth thoracic. It is possible, of course, that the real eleventh thoracic is lacking, 
and that this individual had thu-teen lumbar vertebra;, but of this there is no posi- 
tive evidence. 

Only a few of the ribs accompany the skeleton of the adult female from St. George 
Island, Alaska (Cat. No. 49726), but there are eleven thoracic vertebra, the trans- 
verse processes of the eleventh bemg short and tliick, like those of the tenth, with a 
distinct facet for the rib at the free end. This facet, however, is directed obliquely 
backward and occupies only the posterior half of the free margm. 

There is no doubt in my mhid that the number of thoracic vertebrae in B. 
hairdii is normally 11 and m B. armixii, 10. This would ordmarily be of little mi- 
portance, as in nearly all kinds of cetaceans a variation of one, or even two, in the 
niunber of thoracic ami hunbar vertebrae in different individuals of the same species 
is commonly met with. In the present family, however, the mmiber of thoracic 
vertebrw shows little variation, and as all knowai skeletons of B.hairdii have eleven 
thoracics and all known skeletons of arnuxii appear to have ten thoracics, it seems 
probable that this difference is specific. At all events, it is correlated with a differ- 
ence in the form of the vertebra themselves. As is well known, the transvei-se 
processes of the thoracics in this family undergo a sudden change of form and posi- 
tion near the end of the series, the elevated processes on the anterior thoracics 
being replaced on the posterior vertebra; by others at a lower level on the sides of 
the centra. This change takes place differently and on different vertebra; m the 
two species under consideration. 

VERTEBR.E. 

In B. arnuxii the eighth thoracic has no facet at the posterior end of the cen- 
trum for the articulation of the head of a nintli rib and no distinct transverse proc- 
ess, the tubercle of the rib articulating with a facet on the side of the metapophysis. 
In B. bairdii the eighth thoracic is similar, but there is a distinct facet at the pos- 
terior end of the centrum. (PI. 32, fig. 1.) 

In B. arnuxii the ninth thoracic has a very distmct transverse process on the 
side of the centrum, while in B. hairdii the ninth thoracic has a short, slender process 
attached to the side of the metapophysis and no facet at the posterior end of the 

centrum. (PL 32, fig. 1.) , . ,. • x . 

In B arnuxii the tenth thoracic is the second one havmg a distmct transverse 
process and the latter is broad distallv and has the articular facet on the posterior 
portion of the free margin. In B. bairdii the tenth thoracic is the first havmg a dis- 
tmct transverse process on the side of the centrum. (PI. 32, fig. 1.) 



74 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

There are only ten thorack's in B. arnuxii, as already mentioned, but in B. 
hairdii there are eleven, and the eleventh is that which bears the second transverse 
process on the side of the centrum. 

The foregoing differences amount to this: That in B. hairdii the commencement 
of the lower series of transverse processes is pushed back one vertebra, as com- 
pared with B. arnuxii, and that in the ninth thoracic of the former species, which 
corresponds to the eighth of the latter species, the metapophysis has a short process 
on the side for the articulation of the tubercle of the rib, instead of merely a sessile 
facet. Although in other genera of ziphioids these differences would perhaps be 
looked upon as individual, since they are constant here they may be considered 
specific, at least provisionally. 

SCAPULA. 

In B. hairdii the anterior border of the scapula is narrower than in B. arnuxii, 
the anterior ridge coming close to it and lying parallel with it. The acromion is 
directed more upward, so that the angle between it and the body of the scapula is 
more acute, and the process itself is rather more expanded distally. The coronoid 
is inclined a little more downward. The whole surface of the scapula is very 
uneven. (PI. 33, fig. 2.) 

HUMERUS AND ULNA. 

The humerus is .shorter than in B. arnuxii and broader distally, and much more 
recurved on the ulnar side. The ulna is much broader distally and its whole shape 
is diflferent. (PI. 33, figs. 3 and 4.) 

CHEVRONS. 

As the skeleton of the typical form arnuxii has been described in considerable 
detail and accurately figured by Flower and by "\'an Beneden and Gervais, it is 
not considered necessary' to give a complete description of that of hairdii in this 
place. The entire skeleton and many of the separate bones are figured in Pis. 
42, 32, and 33. The phalanges are lacking altogether, or are incompletely repre- 
sented, in the various skeletons of hairdii, and for that reason the phalangeal for- 
mula can not be given. The chevrons number ten in the skeleton from Center- 
ville beach, Cahfornia (Cat. No. 49725). Both Flower and Van Beneden and 
Gervais give nine chevrons as the number for the skeleton of arnuxii in the Hun- 
terian Museum, London, but the latter authors have added a tenth in outline in 
the figure of the skeleton of that species which is in the Paris Museum. Ten are 
mentioned by Hector as the correct number for the skeleton of ai'nuxii from Well- 
ington Harbor examined by him.'^ 

STERNUM. 

Tlie sternum of hairdii (PI. 32, fig. 2) consists of five segments and does not 
offer characters by which to distinguish it from that of arnuxii. In the former 
species the first eight pairs of ribs possess distinct heads and tubercles; the tubercle 
is rudimentary in the ninth pair and absent in the tenth and eleventh. 

The dimensions of the three skeletons of hairdii and of that of arnuxii described 
bv Flower are as follows : 



"Trans. N. Z. Inst., vol. 10, 1878, p. 339. Hector remarks that in the skeleton studied by Flower 
there were twelve caudals with facets for chevrons, but I do not find it so stated in the original account. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ — TRUE. 



75 



Dimensions of one skeleton of BerardiiLS amutii and three skeletons of B. hairdii. 



Measurements. 



Length of centra of seven cervicals (Inferior) . 
Atlas: 

Breadth 

Height 

Fourth cervical: 

Greatest height 

Greatest breadth 

Length of centrum 

Seventh cervical: 

Greatest height 

Greatest breadth 

Length of centrum . . 

First thoracic: 

Greatest height 

Greatest breadth 

Length of centrum 

Ninth thoracic: 

Greatest height 

Greatest breadth 

Length of centrum 

First lumbar: 

Greatest height 

Greatest breadth 

Length of centrum 

Sixth lumbar: 

Greatest height 

Greatest breadth 

Lengtli of centrum 

First caudal: 

Greatest height 

Greatest breadth 

Length of centrum 

Ninth caudal: 

Greatest height 

Greatest breadth 

Lengt h of centrum 

Eleventh caudal, length of centrum 

Length of scapula 

Height of scapula 

Length of humerus 

Breadth of humerus at distal end 

Length of radius 

Bread th of radius at distal end 

Length of ulna (Incl. olecranon) 

Breadth of ulna at distal end 

Length of sternmn 

Breadth of first segment of sternum 

Length of first rib (straight) 

Length of fifth rib (straight) 

Length of tenth rib (straight) 



B. arnuzii. 



New 
Brighton, 
New Zea- 
land, 1868, 
(Flower). 

No. 3. 



36 



241 
46 



B. bairdii. 



206 



246 



168 
104 
SOS 
356 
274 
109 
295 

84 
323 

79 
.,143 
325 
457 
991 
737 



49726 .„„, 49727 

St. George centerellle St. George 

I^'^°1. ^,%'S1^^;\ Island, 



Alaska, 
female 
adult. 



362 
339 

254 

K243 

47 

310 

257 

58 

391 

310 

84 

508 
318 
190 



713 
590 
273 

800 
577 
338 

422 
243 
241 
180 
710 
490 



male(?) 
adult. 



1,455 
375 
543 



310 

341 
321 

(1249 

6 197 

34 

270 

235 

49 

390 
290 
68 

478 

C2I8 

176 

540 
575 
215 

642 
572 
243 

•1658 
<i511 
<i280 

335 
194 
194 
156 
670 
445 
340 
170 
0380 
140 



1,530 
495 
505 



Alaska, 

male 

young. 



mm. 



250 

280 
270 

a 191 

M73 

30 

198 

177 
42 

255 

240 

51 

333 

198 
128 

359 
340 
150 

427 
362 
172 

427 
360 
200 

288 
191 
160 
142 
395 
280 
248 
115 
220 

88 
241 

71 



323 



a Median. 
24765— Bull. 



6 Inferior. 



c Process aborted on one side. 



d Second. 



73- 



76 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Genus HYPEROODON Lacepede. 
HYPEROODON AMPULLATUS (Forster). 

Balxna ampullatus Fohster, Kalm's Linnean Travels, vol. 1, 1770, p. 18, footnote. 
Bahna rnstmta Miller, Zool. Dan. Prodrom., 1770, p. 7. 

//yperoudon butskop/ Lackfede, Hist. Nat. des C^taces, 1803— t, pp. XLiv and 319. 
Ilypcroodon rostralum Wesmael, Nouv. M^m. Acad. Roy. Bruxelles, vol. 12, 1840, pis. 1, 2. 
Hypcroodon ampullatus, Rhoads, Science, new ser., vol. 15, 1902, p. 756. 

The National iluseum has one skeleton of this well-known species, somewhat 
imperfect, which is labeled as having been obtained on the coast of Norway, and was 
received about the year 1875. Its catalogue number is 14499. This skeleton is 
about 19 feet long and has the following vertebral formula: C. 7; Th. 9; L. 9; Ca. 
.19 (+1 ?) = 44 (or 45). Eight chevrons are attached to the caudal vertebrae, and 
at least two more were present originally. The fifth thoracic vertebra has no facet 
on the centrum for the head of the sixth rib, but the latter articulates with a small 
facet on the side of the centrum of the sixth thoracic vertebra. The seventh 
thoracic has a well-developed transverse process on the side of the centrum. The 
ninth rib is shorter and more slender than the others. None of the transverse 
processes of the caudal vertebrae are perforated by foramina. These processes end 
on the eighth caudal, and the neural spines on the tenth caudal. The fi'ee ends of 
the neural spines of the thoracic antl lumbar vertebra> are all more or less rounded. 
The pectoral limbs are incomplete. 

So far as I am aware, only three examples of Hxjpcroddon have been taken on 
the coasts of the United States, as mentioned in the list on page 2. The skeleton 
of one of these (from North Dennis, Massachusetts) is in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the skull of the second (from Newport, 
Rhode Island), which was a female, is in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Pliila- 
delphia." This skull is represented in PI. 32, fig. 3 

LIST OF SPECIES OF EXISTING ZIPHIOID WHALES. 
Genus MESOPLODON Gervais. 

MESOPLODON BUJENS ( Sowerby). 

North Atlantic Ocean- northern France to Norwaj' and Sweden; Nantucket 
Island, Massachusetts. 

MESOPLODON EUROP.ffi:DS ( Gervais). 

North Atlantic Ocean; English Channel; New Jersey. 

MESOPLODON GRAYI Haast. 

New Zealand and Chatham Islands; Bahia Nueva, Patagonia (Moreno). 



a Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Dec. 1869, pp. 191, 192. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ — TRUE. 77 

MESOPLODON DENSIROSTRIS (Blainville). 

Indian Ocean and South Seas; Lord Howe Island; Seychelles Islands; South 
Africa; Massachusetts ( ?). 

MESOPLODON HECTORI (Gray). 

New Zealand. 

MESOPLODON BOWDOINI Andrews. 

New Zealand. 

MESOPLODON LAYARDI (Gray). 

South Seas: New Zealand, Chatham Islands; Austraha; Cape of Good Hope 

MESOPLODON STEJNEGERI True. 

North Pacific Ocean; Bering islam] and Oregon. 

Genus ZIPHIUS Cuvier. 
ZIPHIUS CAVraOSTRIS Cuvier. 

Cosmopolitan. 

BERARDIUS ARNUXII Duvernoy. 

New Zealand. 

BERASDItrS BAIRDII Stejneger. 

North Pacific Ocean; Bering Island and St. George Island, Bering Sea, to Kiska 
Harbor, Alaska, and Centerville, California. 

Genus HYPEROODON Lacepede. 

HYPEROODON AMPULLATUS Forster. 

Arctic and North Atlantic oceans; Mediterranean Sea; southern France; New 
York Bay, Newport, Ehode Island, and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. 

HYPEROODON PLANIFRONS Flower. 

Indian and Pacific oceans; Lewis Island, Australia; Province of Buenos Ayres, 
Argentina, and territories of Chubut and Santa Cruz, Patagonia. 



Genus BERARDIUS Duvernoy. 



INDEX, 



Academy of Natural Soienoes of Philadel- 
phia 

Agassiz, L 

description of Mesoplodon hidens by. . . 

Alaska, Ziphius from 

Allen, Dr. G. M 

American Museum of Natural History 

ampullatus (Balsma) 

{Hyperoodon) 

arnuxii (Berardius) 

bairdii (Berardius) 

Balsena ampullatus 

rostrata 

Berardius 

from California 

from Pribilof Islands 

specimens of, in National Museum 

Berardius arnuxii, chevTon bones of 

coloration of 

distribution of 

external dimensions of 

size of 

skeleton, dimensions of 

skull, dimensions of 

teeth, dimensions of 

vertebne of 

vertebral formula of 

Berardius bairdii 

chevTon bones of 

coloration of 

description of a young, from Bering Id . . 

distribution of 

earbonesof 

external dimensions of 

from Bering Island 

from Centerville Beach, Cal., history m". 

from St. George Island, Alaska 

external dimensions of specimens. . 
history of 

from Trinidad, Cal 



76 

3 

4 

1 

3 

2,3 

76 

76 

68 

60 



00, 



7G 

77 

I 
1 
1 

74 
66 



67 
66 
75 
68 
70 
73, 74 



2.60 

74 

66 

64 

77 

69,83 

64,67 

1,60 

2,63 

2 

62 
61,62 



Page. 
Berardius bairdii — Continued . 

humerus of "4 

original description of 65 

scapula of 74 

size of 66 

skeleton of 72 

skeleton, dimensions of 75 

skull of 68 

skull, dimensions of 68 

sternum of 74 

teeth of "0 

teeth, de.scription of 70 

teeth , dimensions of 70 

ulna of '4 

vertebral formula of 72 

Berardius regx 60 

Bering Island, Mesoplodon stejnegeri irom . . . 24 

Ziphiidae from 1 

bidens ( Mesoplodon ) 4,76 

(Physeter) 4 

Boston Society of Natural History 3 

bowdoini ( Mesoplodon) 3, 77 

Brasil, L., account of type-skull of Meso- 
plodon euTopirus by 24 

butskopf {Hyperoodon) 76 

California, Berardius from 1 

cavirostris (Ziphius) 30, 77 

Clark, Maj. Ezra W 61 

Cope, E. D 35 

Crawford, J. G • 3,25 

account of Mesoplodon stejrugeri by 24 

Delphinorhynchus 4 

Delphinus densiroslris 9 

sowerbensis * 

sonerbyi ^ 

densiroslris {Delphinus) 9 

( Mesoplodon) 9, 76 

Dioplodon europxiLS H 

gervaisi ^ 1 

East coast of United States, Ziphiidae from. 2 

Egbert, Dr. J. H 59 

79 



80 



INDEX. 



Page. 

europu'us (Dioplodon) H 

( Mesoplodon) 11, 76 

gervaisi (Dioplodon) H 

gervami{Hypcroi)don) 30 

(Ziphius) 30, 54 

grayi ( Mesoplodon) 3, 76 

Grebnitzki, Nicholaa 1, 31, 60 

grehnilzhii (Ziphiun) 30 

hectori ( Mesoplodon) 77 

Hyatt, A 3. 

Hyperoodon 76, 77 

ffyperoiidon amptillntus 2, 76 

distribution of 77 

from Newport, R.I 2 

from New York bay 2 

from North Dennis, Mass 2 

skeleton of, in National Museum 76 

specimens of, from coa.sts of United 

States 76 

vertebral formula of 76 

Hyperoodon butshopf 76 

Hyperoodon gervaisii 30 

Hyperoodon planifrons, distribution of 77 

Hyperoodon rostratu.m 76 

Hyperoodon semijunctus 30 

original dest-ription of 3-5 

type-skeleton of 31 

Jordan, Dr. D. S 24, 63 

Judge, James 61 

Kigan agalusoch 66 

layardi ( Mesoplodon ) 3, 77 

Manigault, G. E 35 

Meams, Dr. E. A 32 

L. diZ 32 

Mesoplodon 3 

Mesoplodon bidens 2. 3, 4, 11 

distribution of 76 

external dimensions of 23 

from Nantucket, Mass 2, 3, 4 

mandible of 6 

phalangeal formula of 18 

skull of 4 

skull, dimensions of 8, 15 

teeth of 6 

vertebral formula of 15 

Mesoplodon bowdoini 3 

di.stribution of 77 

Mesoplodon densirostris 2, 9, 28 

description of exterior of 10 

distribution of 76 

earbones of 83 

external dimensions of 23 

from Annisquam, Mass 2, 3, 4 

skull, dimensions of 8 



Page. 

Mesoplodon europaeus 2,11 

color of 22 

distribution of 76 

external characters of 21 

external dimensions of 20, 23 

first record of 11 

from Atlantic City, N.J 2,3,11 

history of 20 

from North Long Branch, N.J 2, 3, 11 

lungs of 22 

mandible of 14 

pectoral limb of 18 

phalangeal formula of 18 

ribs of 17 

scapula of 18 

skeleton, dimensions of 18 

skull of. 13 

specific characters of 12 

sternum of 18 

stomach of 22 

teeth of 15 

tongue of 22 

type-skull of, description of, bv L. 

Brasil " 24 

Van Beneden's opinion regarding 12 

vertebrte of 15,16 

vertebral formula of 15 

Mesoplodon grayi 3 

distribution of 76 

Mesoplodon hectori, distribution of 77 

Mesoplodon layardi 3 

distribution of 77 

teeth of 28 

Mesoplodon slejnegeri 2, 24 

distribution of 77 

earbones of 83 

external characters of 29 

from Bering Island 1,3 

from Oregon 1, 2, 3 

mandible of 28 

skull of 25 

skull, dimensions of 29 

teeth of 28 

teeth, dimensions of 29 

Museum of t'omimrative Zoology 2, 3, 76 

Oregon, Mesoplodon stejnegeri from 1, 3 

Physeter bidens 4 

planifrons (Hyperoodon) 77 

Pla-un 66 

Pribilof Islands, Berardius from 1 

Ring, J. H 63 

Tosirata (Safano) 76 

Tostratuni ( Hyperoodon) 76 

St. George Island, Alaska, Berardius from. . . 1 

Scollick, J. \V 32 



INDEX. 



81 



gemijunctus ( Byperoodon) 

(Ziphius) 

seychellensis {Ziphius) 

Soderman, Captain 

sowerbensis (Delphinus) 

sowerbiji{Delphinus) 

Stejneger, Leonhord 1, 3, 24, 31, 60, 

stejncgcri ( Mesoplodon) 

Wellander, Capt. Otto 

West coast of United States, Ziphiida from. 
Yaquina Bay, Oregon, Mesoplodon stejnegeri 

from 

Ziphiidse from east coast of United States.. 

from west coast of United States 

list of existing species of 

specimens of, available for study 

in National Museum 

Ziphijis 

fossil 

species of 

Ziphixis cavirostris 

Argentine specimen of 

caudal vertebrae of 

cervical vertebrae of 

chevron bones of 

color of 

comparison of skeletons of 

dimensions of 

distribution of 

earbones of 

external characters of 

external dimension of 32 

from Argentina 

from Barnegat City, N.J 



Page. 

30 

30 

9 

32 

4 

4 

64,65 

24,77 



24 

2 

2 

76 

1 

1 

77 

4 

30 

2,30 

36 

42 

38 

44 

33,34 

36 

32 



30 



83 

59 

33,34 

55,57 

2,31 



Page. 

Ziphius cavirostris — Continued. 

from Barnegat City, N. J., history of . . . . 33 

from Bering Island 1, 31 

from Charleston, S. C 2, 31 

from Kiska harbor, Alaska !> 2, 31 

from Newport, R.I 2. 31, 32 

from St. Simon Island, Ga 2, 31 

lumbar vertebrae of 41 

pectoral limb of 46 

phalangeal formula of 46, 49 

scapula of 45 

sex characters of 54 

skeleton, dimensions of 47 

skeleton of, from Bering Island 58 

skull, age variations in 50 

dimensions of 53 

sternum of 45 

teeth, description of 55 

dimensions of 55 

thoracic vertebrae of 40 

skeleton, variations in 49 

vertebrae of 37 

vertebral column of 36 

vertebral formula of 36 

Ziphius gervaisii 30, 54 

Ziphius giehnitzhii 30 

external characters of 59 

from Bering Island 31 

skull, dimensions of 53 

skeleton of, from Bering Island 58 

Ziphius semijunctus 30, 35 

from Cliarleston, S. C 2 

type-skull, dimensions of 53 

Ziphius seychellensis 9 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate 1. 

Fig. I. Mesoplodonbidens. Skull. Nantucket, Mass. Mus. Comp. Zoology, No. 1727. Female, adult. 
Dorsal aspect. About J nat. size. 
Extremity of beak defective. 
2. Mesoplodon demirostrWi Skull. Annisquam Mass. Female, young. Boston Society of Natural 
History. Dorsal aspect. \ nat. size. 
Defective on the left side. 

Plate 2. 

Fio. 1. Mesoplodon europxus. Skull. Atlantic City, New Jersey. Male, young. Cat. No. 23346, 
U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. \ nat. size. 

2. Mesoplodon curopseus. Skull. North Long Branch, New Jersey. Female, adult. Mus. 

Comp. Zoology. Dorsal aspect. \ nat. size. 
Distal portion of beak lacking and right frontal region defective. 

3. Mesoplodon bidens. Tooth. Nantucket, Mass. Mus. Comp. Zool., No. 1727. Nat. size. 

Plate 3. 

FiG. 1. Mesoplodon stejnegeri. Type-skull. Bering Island. Immature. Cat. No, 21112 IT.S.N.M. 
Dorsal aspect. J nat. size. 
Edges abraded; distal end of beak defective. 
2. Mesoplodon stejnegeri. Skull. Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Adult. Cat. No. 143132, U.S.N.M. 
Dorsal aspect. } nat. size. 
Proximal end of premaxillje defective and right nasal lacking. 

Plate 4. 

Fig. 1. Mesoplodon bidens. Skull. Nantucket, Mass. Female, adult. Mus. Comp. Zool. No. 1727. 
Ventral aspect. About i nat. size. Tip of beak, left pterygoid, and malars defective. 
2. Mesoplodon densirostris? Skull. Annisquam, Mass. Female, young. Boston Society of Nat- 
ural History. Ventral aspect. } nat. size. 
Left frontal region defective 

Plate 5. 

Fig. 1. Mesoplodon eiiropa;ns. Skull. Atlantic City, New Jersey. Male, young. Cat. No. 23346, 
U.S.N.M. Ventral aspect. J nat. size. 
2. Mesoplodon europxus. Skull. North Long Branch, New Jersey. Female, adult. Mus. Comp. 
Zoology. Ventral aspect. \ nat. size. 
Distal portion of beak lacking, pterygoids, malars, and left frontal and temporal regions defective. 

Plate 6. 

Fig. 1. Mesoplodon stejnegeri. Type-skull. Immature. Cat. No. 21112, U.S.N.M. Ventral aspect. 
i nat. size. 
Edges abraded; tip of beak, pterygoids, zygomatic processes, etc., defective. 
2. Mesoplodon stejnegeri. Skull. Adult. Cat. No. 143132, U.S.N.M. Ventral aspect. About 
J nat. size. 
Pterygoids and left malar defective. 

83 



g4 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Plate 7. 

Fig. 1. Mesoplodon hukns. Skull. Nantucket, Massachusetts. Female, adult. Mus. Comp. Zool. 
No. 1727. Lateral aspect. } nat. size. 
Tip of beak, left pterygoid and malar defective. 
2. Mesoplodon densirostriif Skull. Annisquam, Massachusetts. Female, young. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist. Lateral aspect. \ nat. size. 
Distal portion of beak defective and warped. 

Plate 8. 

FiQ. 1. Mesoplodon europxus. Skull. Atlantic City, New Jersey. Male, young. Cat. No. 23346, 
U.S.N.M. Lateral aspect. About i nat. size. 
2. Mesoplodon curopn'us. Skull. North Long Branch, New Jersey. Female, adult. Mus. Comp. 
Zool. Lateral aspect. About J nat. size. 
Distal portion of beak lacking. , 

Plate 9. 

Fig. I. Mesoplodon stejiiegeri. Type-skull. Bering Island. Immature. Cat. No. 21II2, U.S.N.M. 
Lateral aspect. About J nat. size. 
Premaxilla\ maxilhc, frontals, zygomatic process, etc., defective. On account of these defects 
and the immaturity of the individual the forward inclination of the supraoccipital is much 
greater than in the skull shown in fig. 2. 
2. Mesoplodon stepiegeri. Skull. Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Adult. Cat. No. 143132, U.S.N.M. 
Lateral aspect. J nat. size. 
Proximal end of premaxilKe defective. 

Plate 10. 
Skulls of Mesoplodon. 

Fig. 1. Mesoplodon bidens. Nantucket, Massachusetts. 

2. Mesoplodon densirostris? Annisquam, Massachusetts. 

3. Mesoplodon europseus. Atlantic City, New Jersey. 

4. Mesoplodon europseus, North Long Branch, New Jersey. 

5. Mesoplodon stejnegeri. Type-skull. Bering Island. 

6. Mesoplodon stejnegeri . Yaquina Bay, Oregon. 
Posterior aspect. All figures i nat. size. 

Plate 11. 

Mandibles of Mesoplodon. 

Figs. 1, 2, and 5. Mesoplodon bidens. Nantucket, Massachusetts. 
3 and 6. Mesoplodon europieus. Atlantic City, New Jersey. 
4. Mesoplodon stejnegeri. Yaquina Bay, Oregon. 
All figures ^ nat. size. 

Plate 12. 

Fig. 1. Mesoplodon stejnegeri. Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Mandible and tooth. J nat. size. 

2. The same. Left mandibular tooth. Outer surface. 

3. The same. Right mandibular tooth. Inner surface. 
All figures a little more than j nat. size. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ — TRUE. 85 

Plate 13. 

Mesoplodon europaeus. Atlantic City, New Jersey. Cat. No. 23346, U.S.N.M. 
Fig. 1. Vertebra;, from right to left as follows. 7th thoracic, 8th thoracic, Ist lumbar, 1st caudal. Scale, 

jY nat. size. 

2. Sternum. Anterior aspect. 

3. Left scapula. External surface. Scale -^ nat. size. 

4. Right pectoral limb. External surface. Scale 3^ nat. size. 

5. Lungs. Dorsal aspect. About J nat. size. 

Plate 14. 

Ziphius cavirostris. 

Fig. 1. Skull. (Type of Ziphius semijunctus (Cope).) Charleston, South Carolina. Female, young. 
Cat. No. 21975, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. ^ nat. size. 
Tip of beak slightly defective. 
2. Skull. Barnegat City, New Jersey. Female, adult. Cat. No. 20971, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. 

^ nat. size. 

Plate 1.5. 

Ziphius cavirostris. 

Fio. 1. Skull. Bering Island. (Topotype of Ziphius grebnilzkii.) Female (?), adult. Cat. No. 22069, 
U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. J nat. size. 
2. Skull. Bering Island. (Topotype of Ziphius grebnilzkii.) Dorsal aspect. Cat. No. 21246. 

J nat. size. 

Pl.\te 16. 

ZiphiuK cavirostris. 

Fig. 1. Skull. {Type oi Ziphius grebnilzkii Stejneger.) Bering Island. Male (?). Cat. No. 20993, 
U S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. J nat. size. 
2. Skull. {Topotype oi Ziphius grebnitzkii.) Bering Island. Adult. Cat. No. 21245, U.S.N.M. 

Dorsal aspect, i nat. size. 

Plate 17. 

Ziphius cavirostris. 

Fig. 1. Skull. (Topotype of Ziphius grebnilzkii.) Bering Island. Male (?), adult. Cat. No. 21248. 

U S.N.M. Dorsal aspect, i nat. size. .,, „ ^vt „ t^ 1 

2. Skull. Newport, Rhode Island. Male, adult. Cat. No. 49599, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. 

i nat. size. 

Plate 18. 

Ziphius cavirostris. 

Fig. 1. Skull. (Type of Ziphius semijunctus (Cope).) Charleston, South Carolina. Ventral aspect. 

i nat. size. . 

2. Skull. Barnegat City, New Jersey. Ventral aspect, i nat. size. 

Plate 19. 
Ziphius cavirostris. 
FiG.l. Skull. (Type of Ziphius grebniukii.) Bering Island. Cat. No. 20993, U.S.N.M. Ventral 
aspect. J nat. size. . 

2. Skull. Newport, Rhode Island. Ventral aspect. J nat. size. 



86 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Plate 20. 

Ziphius cavirostris. 

Fio. 1. Skull. (Type of Ziphius semijunctus (Cope).) Charleston, South Carolina. Cat. No. 21975, 
U.S.N.M. Lateral aspect. J nat. size. 

2. Skull. Barnegat City, New Jersey. Lateral aspect. J nat. size. 

3. Skull. (Type of Ziphius grebnitzHi Stejneger.) Bering Island. Cat. No. 20993, U.S.N.M. 

Lateral aspect. J nat. size. 

Plate 21. 

Ziphius cavirostris. 

Fig. 1. Skull. Newport, Rhode Island. Lateral aspect. , nat. size. 

2. Skull. (Type of Ziphius semijunctus (Cope).) Charleston, South Carolina. Posterior aspect. 

7 nat. size. 

3. Skull. Barnegat City, New Jersey. Posterior aspect. } nat. size. 

4. Skull. (Topotype oi Ziphitts grebnitzkiiSteinegeT.) Posterior aspect, j nat. size. 
6. Skull. Newport, Rhode Island. Posterior aspect. ^ nat. size. 

Plate 22. 
Mandibles of Ziphius cavirostris. 

Fig. 1. Charleston, South Carolina. (Type of Z. semijunctus (Cope).) 

2. Newport, Rhode Island. 

3. Bering Island. Cat. No. 22069, U.S.N.M. 

4. Bering Island. Cat. No. 21248, U.S.N.M. 
All figures about ^ nat. size. 

Plate 23. 

Mandibles of Ziphius cavirostris. 

Fig. 1. Bering Island. (Type of Ziphius grebnitzHi Stejneger.) Cat. No. 20993, U.S.N.M. About I 
nat. size. 

2. Newport, Rhode Island. Symphysis. Dorsal aspect. 

3. The same. Ventral aspect. 

Plate 24. 

Mandibles and vertebrse of Ziphius cavirostris. 

Fio. 1. (Type of Z. semijunctus (Cope).) Charleston, South Carolina. Cat. No. 21975, U.S.N.M. 
J nat. size. 

2. (TypeoiZ.grebnitzkiiSte]negeT.) Beringlsland. Cat. No. 20993, U.S.N.M. About ^ nat. size. 

3. Barnegat, New Jersey. About J nat. size. 

4. Vertebrte. (Type of Z. semijunctus (Cope).) From right to left, as follows: 1-3 cervicals, 1st 

thoracic, 7th thoracic, 8th thoracic, 1st lumbar, 1st caudal. About J nat. size. 

Plate 25. 
Ziphius cavirostris (Type of Z. semijunctus (Cope).) 

Fig. 1. Atlas. Anterior surface. Defective on left side. 

2. Sternum. Ventral aspect. 

3. Right pectoral limb. Scapula somewhat defective. 
About J nat. size. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^— TRUE. 87 

Plate 2(i. 
Berardius bairdii. 

Fro. 1. Type-akull. Bering Island. Immature, (at. No. 20992, U.S.N. M. Dorsal aspect. About 
jJj nat. size. 
Frontals and zygomatic processes somewhat defective. 

2. Skull. St. George Island, Pribilof Group, Alaska. Female, adult. Cat. No. 49726, U.S.N. M. 

Dorsal aspect. About -^ nat. size. 

3. Skull. Centerville, California. Male (?), adult. Cat. No. 4972.5, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. 
All figs, about -^ nat. size. 

Pl.\te 27. 

Berardius bairdii. 

Fig. 1. Type-skull. Bering Island. Immature. Cat. No. 20992, U.S.N.M. Ventral aspect. 

2. St. George Island, Alaska. Female, adult. Cat. No. 49726, U.S.N.M. Ventral a.spect. 

3. Centerville, California. Male (?), adult. Cat. No. 49725, U.S.N.M. Ventral aspect. 
All figs, about Yn "*t- size. 

Plate 28. 

Berardius bairdii. 

Fig. 1. Skull. St. George Island, Alaska. Female, adult. Cat. No. 49726, U.S.N.M. Lateral aspect. 

2. Skull. Centerville, California. Male (?), adult. Cat. No. 49725, U.S.N.M. Lateral aspect. 

3. The same skull. Posterior aspect. 

4. Type-skull. Bering Island. Cat. No. 20992, U.S.N.M. Posterior aspect. 
All figs, about Yo °^'- si^6. 

Pl.\te 29. 

Berardius bairdii. 

Figs. 1^. Bering Island. Young. Cat. No. 142118 U.S.N.M. 

5. Skull. St. George Island, Alaska. Male, immature. Cat. No. 29727, U.S.N.M.' Posterior 
aspect. iTj nat. size. 

Pl.\te 30. 

Mandibles of Berardius bairdii. 

Fig. 1. Bering Island. Young. Cat. No. 142118, U.S.N.M. 

2. St. George Island, Alaska. Male, immature. Cat. No. 49727, U.S.N.M. 

3. Bering Island. Adult. (From mounted skull.) 
Dorsal aspect, -fn nat. size. 

Plate 31. ^ 

Mandibles of Berardius bairdii. 

Fig. 1. Bering Island. Young. Cat. No. 142118, U.S.N.M. 

2. St. George Island, Alaska. Male, immature. Cat. No. 49727, U.S.N.M. 

3. Bering Island. (From type-skull.) Immature. Cat. No. 20992, U.S.N.M. 

4. Centerville, California. Male (?), adult. Cat. No. 49725, U.S.N.M. 

5. Bering Island. Adult. (From mounted skull.) 

Lateral aspect. A nat. size. 

Pl.^te 32. 

Berardius bairdii. 

Fig. 1 Vertebra. St. George Island, Alaska. Female, adult. Cat. No. 49726, U.S.N.M. The 
vertebrae from left to right are as follows: 1-3 cervicals, 1st thoracic, 8th thoracic, 9th thoracic, 
10th thoracic, 1st lumbar, 1st caudal. 

2. The .same specimen. Sternum. Ventral aspect. About 1 nat. size. 

3. Hyperoodon ampullalus. Newport, Rhode Island. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 



88 BULLETIN 73, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Plate 33. 

FlQ.l. Berarditishairdii. Atlas. St. George Island, Alaska. Female, adult. Cat. No. 49726, U.S.N. M. 
Anterior surface, i nat. size. 

2. The same specimen. Right ."acapnia, i nat. size. 

3. The same specimen. Humerus, i nat. size. 

4. Berardius bairdii. St. George Island, Alaska. Left pectoral limb. (.'at. No. 49727. Male, 

immature. \ nat. size. 

PlATE 34. 
Tympanic bones of Mesoplodon, Ziphius, and Berardius. 

Fig. 1. Mesoplodon densirostrU (1) . Annisquam, Massachusetts. 

2. Mesoplodon slejnegeri. Yaquina Bay, Oregon. 

3. Ziphiiis cavirostris. (Type ot Z. semijimctus (Cope).) Charleston, South Carolina. 

4. Ziphius cavirostris. (Type of Z. grcbnitzkii Stejuegei.) Bering Island. 

5. Ziphius cuiirostris. Barnegat City, New Jersey. 

6. Ziphius caviroslris. Newport, Rhode Island. 

7. Berardius bairdii. Centerville, California. 
Ventral aspect. Nat. size. 

Plate 35. 

Tympanic bones of Mesoplodon, Ziphius, and Berardius. 

Fig. 1. Mesoplodon densiroslris (t). Annisquam, Massachusetts. 

2. Mesoplodon slejnegeri. Yaquina Bay, Oregon. 

3. Ziphius cavirostris. (Type oi Z . semijunctus (Cope) .) Charleston, South Carolina. 

4. Ziphius cavirostris. (Type of Z. grehnitzkii Stejneger). Bering Island. 

5. Ziphius caviroslris. Barnegat City, New Jersey. 

6. Ziphius caviroslris. Newport, Rhode Island. 

7. Berardius bairdii. Centerville, California. 
External surface. Nat. size. 

Plate 36. 

Right periotic bones of Mesoplodon, Ziphius, and Be'urdiiis. 

Fig. 1. Mesoplodon densiroslris (1) Annisquam, Massachusetts. 

2. Mesoplodon slejnegeri. Yaquina Bay, Oregon. 

3. Ziphius caviroslris. (Type oi Z. semijunctus (Cope).) Charleston, South Carolina. 

4. Ziphius caviroslris. (Type of Z. grebnilzUi Stejneger.) Bering Island. 

5. Ziphius caviroslris. Barnegat City, New Jersey. 

6. Ziphius cavirostris. Newport, Rhode Island. 

7. Berardius bairdii. Centerville, California. 
Inner aspect. Nat. size. 

Plate 37. 
Right periotic bones of Mesoplodon, Ziphius, and Berardius. 

Fig. 1. Mesoplodon derisiroslris (?) Annisquam, Massachusetts. 

2. Mesoplodon slejnegeri. Yaquina Bay, Oregon. 

3. Ziphius caviroslris. (Type of Z. semijunctus (Cope).) Charleston, South Carolina. 

4. Ziphius cavirostris. (Type of /. grebnilzUi Stejneger). Bering Island. 

5. Ziphius cavirostris. Barnegat City, New Jersey. 

6. Ziphius cavirostris. Newport, Rhode Island. 

7. Berardius bairdii. Centerville, California. 
Outer aspect. Nat. size. 



BEAKED WHALES, FAMILY ZIPHIID^ — TKUE. 89 

Plate 38. 

Teeth of Ziphius cavirostris. 

Fig. 1. Type of Z. semijunct-us (Cope). Charleston, South Carolina. Cat. No. 21112, U.S.X.M. 
Left tooth. Inner surface. 
2. The same. Right tooth. Outer surface. 
3^. Barnegat City, New Jersey. The two large teeth. 

5. The same. One of the rudimentary teeth. 

6. Topotype of Z. grehnitzUi. Cat. No. 22069, U.S.N.M. Bering Island. Left tooth. Outer 

surface. 

7. The same. Right tooth. Inner surface. 

8. Type of Z. grebnitzhii Stejneger. Cat. No. 20993, U.S.N.M. Bering Island. Left tooth. 

Inner surface. 

9. The same. Right tooth. Outer surface. 

10. Newport, Rhode Island. Cat. No. 49599, U.S.N.M. Left tooth. Inner surface. 

11. The same. Right tooth. Outer surface. 

Plate 39. 
Teeth of Berardius hairdn. 

Fig. 1. Bering Island. Young. Cat. No. 142118, U.S.N.M. Lett anterior tooth. Inner surface. 
2 The same. Left posterior tooth. Inner surface. 
3. St. George Island, Alaska. Male, immature. Cat. No. 49727, U.S.N.M. Right anterior tooth. 

Inner surface. 
4 The same. Left anterior tooth. Outer surface. 
.5. Centerville, California. Male, adult. Cat. No. 4972.5, U.S.N.M. Left anterior tooth. Inner 

surface. 
6 The same. Right posterior tooth. Outer surface. 

7. St. George Island, Alaska. Female, adult. Cat. No. 49726. Left anterior tooth. Inner 

surface. 

8. The same. Right posterior tooth. Outer surface. 

9. The same. Left posterior tooth. Inner surface. 

All figures natural size. 

* Plate 40. 

Fig. 1. Stomach of Mesoplodon europxus. Atlantic City, New Jersey. Cat. No. 23346, U.S.N.M. 
Ventral aspect. About J nat. size. 

2 The same. Dorsal aspect. About i nat. size. 

3 The same Perineum, a, penis, fc, rudimentary mammary slits, c, anus. About i nat. size. 
4. Mesoplodon slejnegeri. Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Cat. No. 143132, U.S.N.M. Head, showing 

teeth in natural position. 

Plate 41. 

Fig. 1. Mesoplodon europsev^. Atlantic City, New Jersey. Male, young. Cat. No. 23346, U.S.N.M. 
Length 12J feet. 
2. The same. Dorsal aspect. 

3 Ziphim cavirostris (T). Kiska Harbor, Alaska, 1904. 
4. Ziphius cavirostris. Newport, Rhode Lsland. Male, adult. Length 20 leot 1 inch. tat. No. 

49599, U.S.N.M. 

Plate 42. 

Fio. I. Berardius bairdii. St. George Island, Alaska. Female, adult. Length 40 feet 2 inches. Cat. 
No. 49726, U.S.N.M. 
Ventral aspect. ,n~c- n c xt vi 

2 3 Berardius bairdii. Centerville, California. Male ^?), adult. Cat. No. 49.2o, U.S.N.M. 
Length about 41 feet. Head from in front and from below. 
4. The same. Skeleton. About J nat. size. 

The pectoral fin is modeled from another specimen. It is on the wrong side m this figure. 

O 



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SKULLS OF MESOPLODON 



Fig. 1.— M. bidrns 

Fig. 2.— M. densirostris (?) 



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SKULLS AND TOOTH OF MESOPLUDON 



Figs. 1, 2.— M. EUttop.ffi:us 
Fig. 3.— M. bidens 



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SKELETON AXD LTTNGS OF MESOPLODOX EtTEOr.EUS 



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SKULLS OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTETS 



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SKULLS OF ZlPI'inJS C^AVirvOSTEIS 



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SKULLS OF ZIPHIUS CAAaROSTRIS 



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SKTTLLS OF ZIPHTU8 CAVIEOSTRTS 



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SKULLS OF ZIPIIIUS CAVIROSTRIS 



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SKULLS ()V ZIPIIIUS CA\riR)STias 



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Figs. 1-3.-Stomach and Perineum of M. europ^us 
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